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Cell cycle and its regulations Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by

exam 4

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.

cell cycle

Stages of cell cycle

G1: first phase, Growth phase. Marked proces­sions of 20 amino acids
S: When DNA replic­ation commemces. When the phase is complete all the chromo­somes have been replic­ated. DNA is doubled
G2: gap phase. Growth continues
M: Mitosis, cell division occurs

mitosis and meiosis

mitosis: only one round of genetic separation and cellular division, a cell splits to create two identical copies of the original cell. Diploid
meiosis: two rounds of genetic separation and cellular division, cells split to form new cells with half the usual number of chromo­somes, to produce gametes for sexual reprod­uction.

mode of inheri­tance



Haploid - having a single set of unpaired chromo­somes (23)
Diploid - containing two complete sets of chromo­somes, one from each parent. (46)
Altern­ations of Genera­tions - The fluctu­ation between these diploid and haploid stages (jelly­fish)
Apoptosis - is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multic­ellular organisms.
gamete - a sexual cell (sperm or egg) only contains 23 chromo­somes

terms of patterns of inheri­tance

Gene - a sequence of DNA or RNA which codes for a molecule that has a function
Allele - one of two or more altern­ative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromo­some.
homozygous - individual has two of the same allele, whether dominant or recessive
Hetero­zygous - means having one each of two different alleles.
Genotype - is the set of genes in our DNA which is respon­sible for a particular trait.
Phenotype- The physical appearance or bioche­mical charac­ter­istic of an organism as a result of the intera­ction of its genotype and the enviro­nment