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Textbook Chap 2 &10 Outline Cheat Sheet by

Research method textbook

Types of Research Questions

Desc­­ri­ption & Classi­fic­ation
-Does x exist?
-What are the characteristics
of x?
-What components make up x?
-Is group x different from Group y?
-[Ex] Is there an uncons­cious?
-[Ex] What are the child-­­re­aring practices of mothers who are drug addicts?
-[Ex] What are the principle components of person­ality?
-[Ex] Are men more aggressive than women?

Two static­-group variables

*Some studies include 2+ organi­smi­c-a­ttr­ibu­te-­status variables that intend to predict a different continuous variable.
*Ex. If resear­chers were interested in the relati­onship between living in the city since birth & problems in adoles­cence possible variables could be (a) drug use (b) criminal records before the age of 18

Types of Research Questions (Cont.)

Caus­al-­Com­par­ative Intera­ction
-Is there a relati­onship or associ­ation between x & y?
-Does x produce, lead to, or prevent changes in y?
-Does x cause more change in y than does z?
-Does x cause
more change in y
than does
z under certain condiitons but not under other condit­ions?
-Ex. Is happiness related to income?
-Ex. Does smoking marijuana reduce anxiety?
-Ex. Is studying for a
test alone more effective for better perfor­mance than studying in groups?
-Ex. Is weed more effective than SSRI's in treating depression among women
than men?
-Resea­rchers do not control extraneous variables
-The additional provision
that the second
experimental manipulation
must also be valid &
must be introduced
in an unbiased manner
**The same standards need to be met for both Causal­-Co­mpa­rative & Causal­-Co­mpa­rative Intera­ction.
Remember to pay attention to the added indepe­ndent variable

Types of qualit­ative research methods?

-Data on naturally occurring behaviors in their usual enviro­nments
-Data on personal history of applic­ants, perspe­ctives, experi­ences
-Data on cultural
norms of target groups & obtaining broad overviews of issues of concern to that specific group.
**Each method aims to obtain a specific type of data.

What we learn from qualit­ative?

*The "­hum­an" side of issues, such as an indivi­dual's opinions, emotions, & beliefs.

*Also assist with identi­fying intangible factors, like social norms, SES, gender roles, & religion.

*When it's used in addition to quanti­tative methods, this provides us a better unders­tanding of the complex reality of given situations as well as the meaning of the quanti­tative data.

Advantages of qualit­ative methods

*meaning & culturally approp­riate
*unant­ici­pated by research since
questions vary based on answers
*descr­iptive & explan­atory in answers


*Are predictive statements about the outcome that's expected.
*Must be clearly explic­ated.

Null Hypoth­esis- Predicts that no relati­onship exists.

Altern­ative Hypoth­esis- Predict that groups assisted in different treatments will demons­trate a difference in perfor­mance.

Null Hypothesis Sign test- If the null is rejected p<.05, the direction of the group means must be in the direction (if specified) you expected to gain support.


*Theories are broader compared to hypoth­eses.
*Hypot­hesis= based on a specific observ­ation
*Theories= A general principle utilizing numerous tests.

Conceptual & Operat­ional Def.

Concept Def.
Operat­ional Def.
*Describe the qualities of the variable that are indepe­ndent of time & space.
*Descr­iption of observable charac­ter­istics that represents a variable.
-Ex. Intell­igence
-Ex. for Intell­igence, we may use the score someone receives on a specific intell­igence test.
-We must relate intell­igence to variables
that we are able to measure.

Experi­mental variables

*If the study includes indepe­nde­nt/­dep­endent variables, this is an experi­mental method.

Static­-Group (Non experi­mental) Variables

*Resea­rchers choose their partic­ipants based on preexi­sting groups they are part of who demons­trate the identi­fying charac­ter­istics for the predictor variable.
*Could be sex, race, education, occupa­tion, diagnosis, political afflic­tions.
*These variables are unable to be manipu­lated by resear­chers because we can't alter someone's political associ­ation or sex.
-The term indep­endent variable is utilized & implies that a causal relati­onship exists. So we refer to group membership as a predictor variable since manipu­lation hasn't occurred.

Measured Variables

*Are not manipu­lated by experi­menters & are not naturally occurring events.
*Variables are often labeled "­pre­dic­tor­" & have a "­cri­ter­ion­" but don't assume causality between the two.
*They aim to find the associ­ation between 2 continuous variables.
*Can't assume that poor attendance causes bad test scores or that bad test scores causes poor attend­ance.
*Minimal inference by resear­chers

Multiple Correl­ation & Causation

*Corre­lations between 2 variables show the relati­ons­hip­/as­soc­iation between them but do not imply one is the cause of the other.
*Demon­strates 2+ indepe­ndent variables & a dependent variable.

Difference between quan & qual methods

*analy­tical objectives
*types of questions asked
*diffe­rences in data collection instru­ments
*data produced
*degree of flexib­ility of the study

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