Types of Research Questions
Description & Classification
-Does x exist?
-What are the characteristics
-What components make up x?
-Is group x different from Group y?
-[Ex] Is there an unconscious?
-[Ex] What are the child-rearing practices of mothers who are drug addicts?
-[Ex] What are the principle components of personality?
-[Ex] Are men more aggressive than women?
Two static-group variables
*Some studies include 2+ organismic-attribute-status variables that intend to predict a different continuous variable.
*Ex. If researchers were interested in the relationship between living in the city since birth & problems in adolescence possible variables could be (a) drug use (b) criminal records before the age of 18
Types of Research Questions (Cont.)
-Is there a relationship or association between x & y?
-Does x produce, lead to, or prevent changes in y?
-Does x cause more change in y than does z?
-Does x cause
more change in y
z under certain condiitons but not under other conditions?
-Ex. Is happiness related to income?
-Ex. Does smoking marijuana reduce anxiety?
-Ex. Is studying for a
test alone more effective for better performance than studying in groups?
-Ex. Is weed more effective than SSRI's in treating depression among women
-Researchers do not control extraneous variables
-The additional provision
that the second
must also be valid &
must be introduced
in an unbiased manner
**The same standards need to be met for both Causal-Comparative & Causal-Comparative Interaction.
Remember to pay attention to the added independent variable
Types of qualitative research methods?
-Data on naturally occurring behaviors in their usual environments
-Data on personal history of applicants, perspectives, experiences
-Data on cultural
norms of target groups & obtaining broad overviews of issues of concern to that specific group.
**Each method aims to obtain a specific type of data.
What we learn from qualitative?
*The "human" side of issues, such as an individual's opinions, emotions, & beliefs.
*Also assist with identifying intangible factors, like social norms, SES, gender roles, & religion.
*When it's used in addition to quantitative methods, this provides us a better understanding of the complex reality of given situations as well as the meaning of the quantitative data.
Advantages of qualitative methods
*meaning & culturally appropriate
*unanticipated by research since
questions vary based on answers
*descriptive & explanatory in answers
*Are predictive statements about the outcome that's expected.
*Must be clearly explicated.
Null Hypothesis- Predicts that no relationship exists.
Alternative Hypothesis- Predict that groups assisted in different treatments will demonstrate a difference in performance.
Null Hypothesis Sign test- If the null is rejected p<.05, the direction of the group means must be in the direction (if specified) you expected to gain support.
*Theories are broader compared to hypotheses.
*Hypothesis= based on a specific observation
*Theories= A general principle utilizing numerous tests.
Conceptual & Operational Def.
*Describe the qualities of the variable that are independent of time & space.
*Description of observable characteristics that represents a variable.
-Ex. for Intelligence, we may use the score someone receives on a specific intelligence test.
-We must relate intelligence to variables
that we are able to measure.
*If the study includes independent/dependent variables, this is an experimental method.
Static-Group (Non experimental) Variables
*Researchers choose their participants based on preexisting groups they are part of who demonstrate the identifying characteristics for the predictor variable.
*Could be sex, race, education, occupation, diagnosis, political afflictions.
*These variables are unable to be manipulated by researchers because we can't alter someone's political association or sex.
-The term independent variable is utilized & implies that a causal relationship exists. So we refer to group membership as a predictor variable since manipulation hasn't occurred.
*Are not manipulated by experimenters & are not naturally occurring events.
*Variables are often labeled "predictor" & have a "criterion" but don't assume causality between the two.
*They aim to find the association between 2 continuous variables.
*Can't assume that poor attendance causes bad test scores or that bad test scores causes poor attendance.
*Minimal inference by researchers
Multiple Correlation & Causation
*Correlations between 2 variables show the relationship/association between them but do not imply one is the cause of the other.
*Demonstrates 2+ independent variables & a dependent variable.
Difference between quan & qual methods
*types of questions asked
*differences in data collection instruments
*degree of flexibility of the study