Cheatography

# SCIENTIFIC LITERACY Cheat Sheet by LIMELIGHT234

SCIENTIFIC LITERACY EXAM 2022 SEMESTER 1

### EMPIRICAL STATEMENTS

 About the natural world Invest­igated using evidence of our senses EG. Taller boys have larger hands EG. High-sugar soft drinks contribute to heart conditions Something doesn't have to be true to be an Empirical statement as long as theore­tically it could be proved of disproved Not Empirical if it relates to ethics, maths etc.

### QUANTI­TATIVE SKILLS

 ACCURACY Proximity of a measur­ement to its true value PRECISION Proximity of several measur­ements to each other UNCERT­AINTY Try and estimate measured quantity to one decimal place smaller than the lowest graduation on a scale EG. On a ruler with cm and mm read to 3.74 EG. If balance weighs mass to the nearest gram there is an uncert­ainty reading of +- 0.5g

### STATISTICS

 Mode - highest - lowest score Median - Middle score Mean - Average Standard deviation - SD = √ ∑ (mean – x)2 / n - 1

### VALID AND SOUND ARGUMENTS

 VALID If the truth of the premise (opening statem­ents) guarantees truth of conclusion SOUND If argument is valid and premises are true EG. All fruit have seeds, some breakfast foods are fruit, therefore, some breakfast foods have seeds = valid and sound EG. All fish can talk, some birds are fish, therefore, some birds can talk = Valid but unsound EG. All fruit are edible foods, some edible foods are breakfast foods, therefore, some breakfast foods and fruit = Invalid and unsound To be a sound argument, it must be a valid one, even if premises are true

### VARIABLES

 Factors that affect results Indepe­ndent or experi­mental variable is changed (on the X axis of a graph Controls are kept the same Dependent variable is beings measured (on the Y axis of a graph)

### PROBAB­ILITY

 Single - number of favourable outcom­es/­number of equally likely outcomes 2 or more - Probab­ility of one X probab­ility of the other A or B -proba­bility of a X probab­ility of B - probab­ility of A and B

### Quanti­tative skills

 CONVER­SIONS BETWEEN MEASUR­EMENTS Micrometer = 0.001mm Millimeter = 0.001m Centimeter = 10mm Meter = 100cm Decimeter = 10cm or 1/10 of a meter Kilometer = 1000m Megameter = 1000km Gigameter = 1000000km Kelvin = degrees celcius + 273

### SIGNIF­ICANT FIGURES

 All non-zero digits are signif­icant Zeros between non-zero digits are signif­icant Zeros at the beginning of a number are not signif­icant eg. 0.00234 Zeros at the end of a number are signif­icant if there is a decimal in the number eg. 560.00 Only round at final step of equation Round to least signif­icant decimal place/­figure Conversion between units = given units X desire­d/given = desired