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Humanistic and Existential Aspects of Personality Cheat Sheet by

A cheat sheet that covers "Humanistic and Existential Aspects of Personality" in the Personality Theories perspective. Includes humanism, existentialism; Fromm, Rogers, May, Maslow and a brief summary of their perspectives.

Exis­ten­tia­lism

Meaning of human existence; the self cannot exists without the world.
Being in the world; the presence of an indivi­duals with all of their choices and authentic self.
In that aspect, every human being must have been examined in their world.
Phenom­eno­logical Approach; suggests that subjective realities are important.
Object­ivity is the last item of the list.

Humanism

Emphasizes the personal worth of the individual and the importance of human values..
Humans are evaluated as a whole, not just focusing on some specific parts.
The Third Force; emphasizes creative, sponta­neous, active nature of humans.
1st force=­psy­cho­ana­lysis / 2nd force=­beh­avi­orism
Our existence comes from our relati­onships with others.
(1) How the relati­onship is with the enviro­nment (2) How satisfying those relati­onships are
I-Thou Dialogue;
direct and mutual; dialogue
I-It Monologue;
utilit­arian view of another; monologue
The potential of human movement;
people are encouraged to realize their inner potentials
For realiz­ation of the potential, humanism uses;
group meetings, self-d­isc­losure, intros­pection

Eric Fromm

Love; Love is the solution of everything since it is also the thing that modern world made forgotten.
The reason of why we are alienated, object­ified and passed through the pragmatic view is the lack of love.
Love allow us to overcome our isolation as an indivi­dual; but also protects our individual integrity.
On the other hand, modern world encourages existe­ntial alienation (1950-­2000).
Dialectic Humanism; reconciles the biolog­ica­l/d­riven side of human beings and the pressure of the societal structure.
Describes the structure that humans are in; people can transcend these forces through free-will.

Carl Rogers

Focuses on respon­sib­ility; people must strive to take respon­sib­ility for themse­lves.
Becoming one's self
"Same seeds show different develo­pments under different condit­ion­s."
Enviro­nment is an important factor that is effective on the develo­pment.
People have an inherent tendency towards growth and matura­tion.
According to Rogers, there are two selves that present; as The self that actual­izing itself right now" and the ideal self that individual wants to become.
It becomes proble­matic when the difference grows between those selves.

Respon­sib­ilities of Therapist (Rogerian Therapy)

Therapist is supportive and non-di­rective
a key block to build positive relati­onships
Therapist is client oriented
interested in the person that client wants to become
Therapist provides uncond­itional positive regard to the client
Therapist provides empathetic unders­tanding to client's internal frame of reference
Congruence between therapist and client is based on;
(1) accurate self perception & (2) accurate commun­ication
 

Rollo May

Anxiety is triggered by a threat to the core values of existence.
When people feel anxious, they search for meaning in their lives.

Victor Frankl

Emphasizes on the importance of personal choice
Existe­nti­al-­hum­anistic approaches and support groups are used.
Logoth­erapy
Importance of choosing to find meaning in life.

Abraham Maslow

Hierarchy of needs
Self-A­ctu­ali­zation; the innate process that person realize his/her inner potnetial.
Spirit­ually fulfilled, comfor­table with themse­lves, loving, ethical, creative, productive
Peak Experi­ences; powerful experi­ences that person transcends the self, feel completely self-f­ulf­illed
"be at one with the world"

Measuring Self-­Act­ual­iza­tion

Interviews
Observ­ations
Projective Studies
Biogra­phical Studies
Personal Orient­ation Inventory (POI); a self-r­eport questi­onnaire that captures some aspects of a healthy person­ality

Analogy of the Approach

Humans are free and sentient beings that seek spiritual fulfil­lment

Advantages of the Approach

Emphasizes courageous struggle for self-f­ulf­illment
Apprec­iates the spiritual nature of a person
Based on healthy, well-a­djusted indivi­duals
Considers each indivi­dual's experience is unique

Limits of the Approach

May avoid quanti­fic­ation and scientific method
Sometimes insuff­ici­ently concerned with reason
Theories are sometimes ambiguous or incons­istent

View of Free-Will

Free-will is essential to being human

Common Assessment Techniques

Interview
Art
Self-E­xpl­oration
Literature
Biogra­phical analysis of creativity and special achiev­ement
Self-r­eport tests
Observ­ation

Implic­ations for Therapy

Encourages self-k­now­ledge through experi­ences
including also the spiritual ones (exper­iences)
Rogers' client centered therapy offers a genuine empathetic therapist providing uncond­itional positive regard.
 

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