toward the head
toward the tail
toward the backbone
toward the belly
toward the side
toward the midline
walks on four legs
walks on two legs
provides food and oxegen from mother to the fetus and the movement of wastes from the fetus to the mother.
develops beneath the mammary papilla in the female.
Three external physical characteristics that indicate the pig is a mammal:
Umbilical Cord, Hair, Mammary Glands
Above the diaphragm, breathing and heart
Below the diaphragm, digestion
nostrils used for breathing and smelling
Whiskers, act as sealers sensitive to things close
Thrid lid-like structure in the corner of the eye. Protects eye from debris. (Humans do NOT have one)
Male or Female
allows reproductive and excretory material (like urine) out of the body.
Male urogenital opening
posterior to the umbilical cord on the ventral surface.
Female urogenital opening
covered by a flap of tissue: genital papilla ventral to the anus.
Compare and Contrast pigs to humans.
Mammary papilla, hair, umbilical cord
Skeleton, thick hair, nictitating membrane
mouth, small intestine
Chemical vs Mechanical
breaks big food into small food
breaks down starch into simple sugar, destroys food and harvests nutrients
To the Stomach
Contractions of smooth muscle that aid in swallowing (helps move food through esophagus)
Partially digested semi liquid food bolus that passes from the stomach to the small intestine
Food tube connecting the mouth to the stomach
enzyme released by the stomach that digest protiens
enzyme released by the pancreas that digests fat
enzyme released by salivary glands in the mouth and by the small intestine that digests straches into simpler carbohydrates
Peptidase and Trypsin
enzymes that break down proteins into amino acids in the small intestine
Maltase, Lactase, Sucrase
enzymes the break down sugars into simpler molecules
creates insilin and enzymes to break down molecules (sugars)
neutralize the acid content of the chyme
digests fat, protien, and sugars
a hormone that allows sugars to enter the cells from the blood
Tiny projections tha cover the lining of the folds of the small intestine
The folds, villi and microvilli projections increase the surface area of the intestine, greatly increasing the rate of absorbtion of nutrients.
diffuse into the circulatory system and are carried to the liver. (small piece from the stomach to the bigger part)
Absorbs: sugar, amino acids, calcium, and iron
Diffuse circulatory system to be distributed throughout the body (first large section of the small intestine)
Absorbs: glucose, amino acids, vietamin C & B, and water
Empty into lymph and blood vessels and are distributed to the cells (End section of small intesine)
Absorbs: fat-saluable vitamins, vitamin B, fatty acids, cholesterol, and some water
an emulsifier which means it breaks down large molecules of lipidsinto smaller ones. (stored in gull bladder, and made in small intestine)
help the circulatory and lymphatic systems
Contrast pigs to humans.
7 lung lobes (4 on right side, 3 on left), Colon is not spiral, does not use cecum?
5 lung lobes (3 on right, 2 on left), spiral large intestine (square shape)
makes pepsin, contains hydrochlic to digest protiens
builds more complex molecules, that are need by cells (glycogen)
Large Intestine (called spiral colon in the pig)
Absorb water, bile, salts, and electrolytes
Feces in stoed in the rectom and is eliminated through the anus
makes saliva to moisten food and begin the digestive system
break down food to make it smaller
Hard and soft Palate
Seperate mouth from nose cavities
passes food down to stomach
opening to larynx
Block food from going into lungs
moves food in mouth help push food down esophagus
a tube-shaped sac attached to and opening into the lower end of the large intestine