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Cheatography

Hon Biology Anatomy Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by

This covers anatomical terminology. External features, internal features that include the digestive and excretory systems and the circulatory (cardiovascular) and respiratory systems.

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.

External Features

Anterior (Cranial)
toward the head
Posterior (Caudal)
toward the tail
Dorsal (Superior)
toward the backbone
Ventral (Inferior)
toward the belly
Lateral
toward the side
Medial
toward the midline

Anatomical Termin­ology

Locomotion

Quadruped
walks on four legs
Biped
walks on two legs

Identify Mammals

Umbilical Cord
provides food and oxegen from mother to the fetus and the movement of wastes from the fetus to the mother.
Mammary Papilla
nipples
Mammary Glands
develops beneath the mammary papilla in the female.
Three external physical charac­ter­istics that indicate the pig is a mammal:
Umbilical Cord, Hair, Mammary Glands
Thoracic Cavity
Above the diaphragm, breathing and heart
Abdominal Cavity
Below the diaphragm, digestion

Sense Features

Nares
nost­rils used for breathing and smelling
Pinnae
External ears.
Vibrissae
Whis­kers, act as sealers sensitive to things close
Nictit­ating Membrane
Thrid lid-like structure in the corner of the eye. Protects eye from debris. (Humans do NOT have one)

Male or Female

Urogenital opening
allows reprod­uctive and excretory material (like urine) out of the body.
Male urogenital opening
posterior to the umbilical cord on the ventral surface.
Female urogenital opening
covered by a flap of tissue: genital papilla ventral to the anus.

Male or Female

Compare and Contrast pigs to humans.

Simila­rities
Mammary papilla, hair, umbilical cord
Differ­ences
Skeleton, thick hair, nictit­ating membrane
 

Macrom­ole­cules

Carboh­ydrates
mouth, small intestine
Proteins
stomach, duodenum
Lipids
small instestine
Nucleic Acids
small instestine

Chemical vs Mechanical

Mechanical
breaks big food into small food
Chemical
breaks down starch into simple sugar, destroys food and harvests nutrients

To the Stomach

Perstalsis
Contra­ctions of smooth muscle that aid in swallowing (helps move food through esophagus)
Chyme
Partially digested semi liquid food bolus that passes from the stomach to the small intestine
Esophagus
Food tube connecting the mouth to the stomach
Pepsin
enzyme released by the stomach that digest protiens
Lipase
enzyme released by the pancreas that digests fat
Amylase
enzyme released by salivary glands in the mouth and by the small intestine that digests straches into simpler carboh­ydrates
Peptidase and Trypsin
enzymes that break down proteins into amino acids in the small intestine
Maltase, Lactase, Sucrase
enzymes the break down sugars into simpler molecules

Pancreas

Pancreas
creates insilin and enzymes to break down molecules (sugars)
Alkaline
neutralize the acid content of the chyme
Lipase
digests fat, protien, and sugars
Insulin
a hormone that allows sugars to enter the cells from the blood

Small Intestine

Villi
Tiny projec­tions tha cover the lining of the folds of the small intestine
The folds, villi and microv­illi projec­tions increase the surface area of the intestine, greatly increasing the rate of absor­btion of nutrients.
Duodenum
diffuse into the circul­atory system and are carried to the liver. (small piece from the stomach to the bigger part)
Absorbs: sugar, amino acids, calcium, and iron
Jejunum
Diffuse circul­atory system to be distri­buted throughout the body (first large section of the small intestine)
Absorbs: glucose, amino acids, vietamin C & B, and water
Ileum
Empty into lymph and blood vessels and are distri­buted to the cells (End section of small intesine)
Absorbs: fat-sa­luable vitamins, vitamin B, fatty acids, choles­terol, and some water
Bile
an emulsifier which means it breaks down large molecules of lipidsinto smaller ones. (stored in gull bladder, and made in small intestine)
Aborbtion
help the circul­atory and lymphatic systems
 

Contrast pigs to humans.

Pigs
7 lung lobes (4 on right side, 3 on left), Colon is not spiral, does not use cecum?
Humans
5 lung lobes (3 on right, 2 on left), spiral large intestine (square shape)

Organs

Stomach
makes pepsin, contains hydrochlic to digest protiens
Liver
builds more complex molecules, that are need by cells (glycogen)
Large Intestine (called spiral colon in the pig)
Absorb water, bile, salts, and electr­olytes
Feces in stoed in the rectom and is eliminated through the anus
Salivary Glands
makes saliva to moisten food and begin the digestive system
Teeth
break down food to make it smaller
Hard and soft Palate
Seperate mouth from nose cavities
Esophagus
passes food down to stomach
Glottis
opening to larynx
Epiglottis
Block food from going into lungs
Tongue
moves food in mouth help push food down esophagus
Cecums (Appendix)
a tube-s­haped sac attached to and opening into the lower end of the large intestine