UNIT 1
Formula Name 
Equation 
Boyle's Law 
PV = k (N,T) 
Charles's Law 
V/T = k (N,P) 
Avogadro's Law 
V/n = k (T,P) 
Ideal Gas Law 
V = nRT/P or PV = nRT 
Dalton's Law 
Ptotal = P1 + P2 + P3.... 
STP 
1 atm, 0 Celsius 
Gas Density 
d = m/V = PM/RT = N/V 
Partial Pressure 
P1 = X1 * Ptotal 
Root Mean Squared Speed 
v = sqrt(3RT/M) 
Collision Frequency 
f = vrms / mfp (mean free path) 
Average Kinetic Energy 
KE = 3/2 nRT 
Effusion  Graham's Law 
rate1/rate2 = sqrt(MW2/MW1) 
General Rate Law 
rate = k[A]^{m*[B]}n 
Zeroth Order Integrated Rate Law 
[A]t = [A]0  kt 
First Order Integrated Rate Law 
ln[A]t = ln[A]0 kt 
Second Order Integrated Rate LAw 
1/[A]t = 1/[A]0 + kt 
Zeroth Order Half Life 
t = [A]0/2k 
First Order Half Life 
t = ln2/k 
Second Order Half Life 
t = 1/k[A]0 
Arrhenius Equation 
Ae^Ea/RT 
Logarithmic Form of Arrhenius Equation 
ln(k2/k1) = (Ea/R) * (1/T2  1/T1) 
MichaelisMenton Enzyme Kinetics 
rate = k2 [E]T [S]/[S] + km 


UNIT 2
Formula Name/Subject 
Equation/Description 
Equilibrium Constant (concentrations) 
Kc = [products]/[reactants] 
Equilibrium Constant (pressures) 
Kp = P(products)/P(reactants) 
Equilibrium Equation (with rates) 
K = kf/kr 
Q = K 
At equilibirum 
Q < K 
reaction shifts in forward direction 
Q > K 
reaction shifts in reverse direction 
Keq is large (10^3) 
kforward > kreverse 
Keq is small (10^3) 
kforward < kreverse 
Keq = 1 
kforward = kreverse 
Kc and Kp Relation 
Kc = Kp * RT^Δn 
L'C: add more reactants 
reaction shifts forward 
L'C: add more products 
reaction shifts reverse 
L'C: increase pressure 
reaction shifts towards fewer moles 
L'C: decrease pressure 
reaction shifts towards greter moles 
L'C: increase volume 
reaction shifts towards greater moles 
L'C: decrease volume 
reaction shifts towards fewer moles 
Endothermic (T) Phase Transitions 
Melting, Sublimation, Evaporation 
Exothermic (P) Phase Transitions 
Freezing, Deposition, Condensation 
Entropy 
S = kB ln(W) 
Change in Entropy for Change in Volume 
ΔS = nR ln(V2/V1) 
Change in Entropy ofSurroundings 
ΔSsurr = ΔH/T 
Gibbs Free Energy 
ΔG = ΔH  TΔS 
Nonstandard Gibbs Free Energy (1) 
ΔG = ΔG0 + RTlnQ 
Standard Gibbs Free Energy 
ΔG0 = RTlnK 
Nonstandard Gibbs Free Energy (2) 
ΔG = RT ln(Q/K) 
ClausisusClaperyon Equation 
ln(P2/P1) = ΔH/R (1/T21/T1) 


UNIT 3
Formula Name/Info 
Equation/Description 
Molarity (M) 
mol solute/L solution (mol/L) 
Molality (m) 
mol solute/kg solution (mol/kg) 
Mole Fraction (X) 
mol solute/mol solution (mol/mol) 
Vapor Pressure (two volatile chemicals) 
Pvap = PaXa + PbXb 
Boiling Point Elevation 
Tb = kb m i 
Freezing Point Depression 
Tf = kf m i 
Osmotic Pressure 
pi =iMRT 
Solubility 
S = mol dissolved / L solution 
CIE: add in species already present 
decrease solubility 
HendersonHasselbach Equation 
pH = pKa + log(conj. base/acid) 
K value for Neutralization 
Kn = Ka*Kb/Kw 
Equivalence Point 
mol base added = mol acid originally present 
Midpoint 
pH = pKa 
SolventSolvent Interactions 
endothermic, overcome IMFs 
SoluteSolute Interactions 
endothermic, overcome IMFs 
SolventSolute Interactions 
exothermic, release energy through attractive forces 
To relate Ka to Kb 
Kw = Ka * Kb 
Strong Acids 
H2SO4, HNO3, HCl, HI, HClO4, HClO3, HBr 
Strong Bases 
LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, CsOH, Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2 


UNIT 4
Formula Name/Subject 
Equation/Description 
Current (I)) 
charge/time (Amperes) 
Voltage (V) 
energy/charge (Volts) 
Power (W) 
energy/seconds (Watts) 
Oxidation Reaction 
Lose electrons 
Reduction Reaction 
Gain electrons 
Cathode 
Site of reduction, e flow to cathode 
Anode 
Site of oxidation, e flow from anode 
Cell Potential (E) 
Ecell = Ecathode + Eanode = Eredcat  Eredan 
Gibbs Free Energy (standard) 
ΔG0 = nFE0 
Faraday's Constant 
96,500 C/mol e 
Nernst Equation 
E = E0  RT/nF lnQ 
Standard Hydrogen Electrode (SHE) 
2H+ + 2e > H2(g) 
Standard Cell Potential 
E0 = RT/nF lnK 
Total Charge (Z) 
Z = I * t (in seconds), in coloumbs 
Moles of Electrons Produced 
n(e) = Z/F 
Moles of Metal Produced 
n(metal) = n(e)* mol(metal)/mols e needed 
Mass of Metal Produced 
m(metal) = n(metal)/MWmetal 
Nernst Equation with pH 
E = E0red + 2.3RT/F logQ 
