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Freud (Chapter 3) Cheat Sheet by

Personology Chapter 3: Sigmund Freud


Oedipus Complex
Identi­fic­ation & rivalry w/same gendered parent, closeness with opposite gendered parent.
Eros, Thanatos (drive behavi­ours)
Life Drives (sex, ego) - seek to preserve life
Death Drives - seeks to gratify desires even when destru­ctive or socially unacce­ptable
Structures of psyche
id, ego, superego
Levels of consci­ousness
uncons­cious, precon­scious, conscious
Psycho­social conflict
inner conflict between uncons­cious desires & social norms, creates anxiety or discomfort
Defense Mechanisms
Strategies used by ego to defend itself agains conflict between forbidden drives & moral codes.
Slips of the tongue or pen, thought to reveal the uncons­cious
Biological & Psychic Determ­inism
Human charac­ter­istics determined at birth via inheri­tance of geneti­cs/­traits from parents
Mechan­istic Assumption
Humans function in mechan­istic way; enery consum­ption, conser­vation & transf­orm­ation.
Develo­pment of person­ality
Psycho­sexual stages (oral, anal, phallic, latent, genital)
Overview of chapter

View of Person Underlying The Theory

Psycho­social Conflict Theory
conflict between drives of psyche & norms of society.
person: drives that need to be satisfied | expect­ation of society designed to protect society by contro­lling drive urges
person tries to feel both; drive satisf­action with as little guilt possible
Biological & Psychic Determ­inism
drives psycho­log­ically based; biological determ­inism
biological determ­inism: charac­ter­istics determined at concep­tion; hereditary
psycho­logical determ­inism: mental processes determined by uncons­cious, pre-ex­isting mental complexes
drives found in: id | societal rule found in: superego
Mechan­istic Assumption
mechan­istic functi­oning of humans; psycho­logical processes & behaviours can be understood in the same way as mechanical or physio­logical processes
physical princi­ples: energy consum­ption, conser­vation, transf­orm­ation
view of the person underlying the theory

Dynamics of the Person­ality

Motiva­tion: Freud's Drive Theory
psyche function based on energy converted from physic­al-­bio­logical form to psychic energy according to the principle of energy transf­orm­ation
intern­ali­zation - person takes attitude, value, belief of others­/co­mmunity as part of their own person­ality in order to better deal with things in future
intern­alized energy allows or disallows person to act on & satisfy desire­s/t­orture them w/guilt
trieb = drive | libido = psychic energy, sexual energy | aggressive energy
motiva­tion: freud

Charac­ter­istics of Drives

each drive stems from a certain part/area of the body (sex drives = erogenous zone)
every drive = certain quantity or intensity; affected by condition of energy source at time & time elapsed since last satisf­action
every drive = goal of satisf­action
every drive requires an object in order to satisfy the drive
satisf­action achieved by: energy of drive + object -> carry out action = satisf­action
earlier object choice no longer available = displa­cement
goal of drives

Structure of Person­ality

3 Structural Properties
id, ego, superego
uncons­cious drives, primitive, pleasure seekin­g/g­rat­ifi­caiton of wants
linked to the drives: eros; thanatos
pleasure principle, thus immediate satisf­action
selfish & unreal­istic - can only accomplish wish fulfil­lment
creation of images of desired object­/fa­nta­sizing
moderates between id & superego (drive­s:s­ocietal norms)
secondary process & reality principle (evalu­ates; reflects; plan & postpone satisf­action of drives)
cathexis - ego's investment of psychic energy into selected objects
intrap­sychic repres­ent­ative of societal moral codes
pressu­rizes ego into following societ­al/­moral codes
moral principle - punishes individual w/ guilt over immoral wishes or behaviours
punishing element = conscience | encour­aging element = ego-ideal
antica­thexis - diversion of mental energy by superego to block mental impulses from the id
structure of psyche

Types of Drives

All drives = 2 basic inclin­ations of living organisms
1. Develop constr­uct­ively (eros-­life) not rigidly controlled by moral codes & do not cause conflicts w/cons­cious
2. Disint­egrate & die (thana­tos­-death)
Ego Drive (eros)
indivi­dual's survival; aimed at satisfying basic life needs
drive respon­sible for develo­pment of ego; provides energy for its functi­oning
Sex Drive (eros)
survival of species; primary concern = erotic (satis­fac­tio­n=p­lea­sure)
Freud: sex drives always present; only emerge @ puberty
Ego vs Sex
Ego = survival of individual | Sex = survival of species
Ego drives = not associated w/moral prescr­ipt­ion­/guilt feelings
Sex drives = linked w/deve­lopment of mental distur­bances
Thanatos (death drives)
Freud: explan­ation for war, murder, death etc
original object = human body
death drive in conflict w/life drive = conflict projected outwards in form of aggression
First form of aggression = oral aggression (baby biting mother)
Sublim­ation = energy can be safely & acceptably used
Person causes own death = tensio­nle­ssn­ess­/ni­rvana (Freud: sees this as the uncons­cious ideal for all life)
Types of Drives: Eros/T­hanatos

Defense Mechanisms

strategies ego uses to defend itself against the conflict betweent the forbidden drives & moral codes
present to cope with uncons­cious, psychic contents; person often unaware they're using def-mechs
2 NB charac­ter­istics shared by def-mechs
1. they are denials & distor­tions of reality
2. they operate uncons­ciously & aim to keep anxiety provoking thoughts at bay
represses content unacce­ptable to the ego into the uncons­cious
different to conscious forgetting
Freud: this is where ideas exist before being made conscious
one act of repres­sion; not enough --> maintained through resistance
operates when repressed drives threaten to break through the surface & cause anxiety
keep uncons­cious threat­ening material uncons­cious by changing the focus onto other people's drives & ignoring impulses within themselves
changing moral anxiety into reality anxiety
Reaction Formation
keep forbidden desire at bay by adopting fanatical stance that gives opposite impression to the desire
often occurs alongside other def-mechs; projection
attempt to explain behaviour w/reasons that sound rational, but aren't actually the real reason for their behaviour
not the same as ordinary lying; normally person is not aware of the true reason for their behaviour
functions by finding substitute for the object that is forbidden by society's moral code
some stage; society deems displa­cement object as unacce­ptable (nipple -> bottle -> pacifier -> smoking)
client's projection to therapist
Counter transf­erence
therap­ist's projection to client
finding displa­cement objects that are societally accepted (most effective form of displa­cement)
person's psycho­logical develo­pment stuck at one stage
person behaves in way apropriate to earlier stage to avoid challenges of next or current stage
too much energy investment in objects of certain stages (one develops person­ality charac­ter­istics based on the stage where fixation occurs)
linked to fixation; Freud: regression to same stage where fixation occured
partial or total return to earlier stage of dev where less anxiety was experi­enced
understood in context of Freud's develo­pment theory
takes place when person represents themselves in another person; uncons­cious desire to be like that person
Defense Mechan­isms: Freud


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