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Social Studies Chapter 2 Cheat Sheet by

Social Studies Chapter 2. European Explorers, what they explored and how they affected canada


If you think your so smart...

I. Who was the last Beothuk alive?
II. What does imperi­alism mean?
III. Who spoke about Newfou­ndland having great schools of fish?
IV. ______ arrived in Canada 60 years after Jacques Cartier's voyages.
V. Which explorers were from France?
I. Shawna­dithit
II. One territory dominates another
III. Giovani Caboto (John Cabot)
IV. Samuel de Champlain
V. Jacques Cartier & Sammuel de Champlain

Giovanni Caboto Video


Giovanni Caboto, a Venice trader, sought to discover a new trade route to the Orient's riches by following the fishermans route yet instead he heads further in the same direction.
Giovanni Caboto, initially unsucc­essful in Venetian merchants, sought a sponsor from Bristol, England, and sailed with 18 men, using the name John Cabot, on May 2, 1497. Their ship was the Matthew, 40 cm long.
Henry VII, the English King, claimed the land on which Cabot landed, naming it "New Found Land." He searched for settle­ments and eventually reached Bristol 15 days later.
Cabot discovered great schools of cod off the coast, bringing news to merchants and the court of England, despite not finding a new route to the east.
Cabot embarked on a new voyage with five ships, seeking east-rich routes. No one knows what happened to him. A storm came, and he stopped in Ireland for a short time. After he set sail again, he and his ships disapp­eared.
Cabot’s important contri­bution to the history of Canada is that he brought to the attention of the English the rich fishing waters of the Grand Banks and knowledge of new land.
Cabot signif­icantly contri­buted to Canada's history by highli­ghting the English's interest in the Grand Banks' rich fishing waters and knowledge of new land.

Jacques Cartier Video


Jacques Cartier, an experi­enced mariner, received sponso­rship from King Francis I of France for his expedition to the New World in 1533.
On April 20, 1534, two vessels left St. Malo with a total crew of sixty-one. Cartier's first move was to sail northward along the east coastline. Later they sailed through a water passage that they named the Straits of Belle Isle. It appears that this area was already known to Europeans, since a large Basque ship from La Rochelle was spotted.
Cartier encoun­tered the desolate coastline of Newfou­ndland in 1534. He discovered Cabot's Strait, proving Newfou­ndland was an island. He named Chaleur Bay, now New Brunswick, and claimed the surrou­nding lands for France. He captured Donnacona and his sons, who were later taken back to France. Cartier discovered the St. Lawrence River and returned to France with two natives and fur pelts, but no gold.
In 1535, Cartier set sail from France with 110 men on three ships. They reached Blanc Sablon, Anticosti Island, L' Ile d'Orleans, Ste. Croix, and the First Nation village of Hochelaga, renamed Mt. Royal, where rumors of a great kingdom began to surface.
Cartier returned to Stadacona, losing some men to scurvy. Natives taught him to combat it with cedar leaves. Cartier returned to France in 1536 with Donnacona who later died in France.
The Cartier Expedi­tions, despite their failure to establish a successful colony and lack of wealth, contri­buted signif­icantly to Europe's maps, despite the challenges they posed.


DISRUPTION Breaking an establ­ished way of doing things
DIMINISH To become less
SPONSOR A person or organi­zation that contri­butes to a project or activity by paying for it
IMPERI­ALISM A policy (decision) on the part of a ruler or government of one territory to dominate other territ­ories
DURABLE Long-l­asting
SETTLEMENT A place where people live perman­ently, such as a village
COLONY A region claimed and governed by a country from another part of the worl
TUBERC­ULOSIS A contagious disease that mostly attacks the lungs
SCURVY A desiease resulting from a lack of Vitamin C that causes internal bleeding
IMMUNITY The ability of the body to fight off infection
SMALLPOX A disease that causes the skin to break out (pox), accomp­anied by a high fever
SAVAGES This is a word Champlain used to describe First Nations peoples, but not a word they used to describe themse­lves.
HUMAN RIGHTS Rights every person has as a human being
UNIVERSAL True or applicable in every circum­stance

Samuel de Champlain Video


Samuel de Champlain, a French explorer, arrived in Canada over sixty years after Jacques Cartier's voyages, claiming the St. Lawrence region and establ­ishing a signif­icant presence in the New World.
Samuel de Champlain, born in France, developed an interest in the sea and embarked on a voyage to the St. Lawrence River in 1603. As geogra­pher, he navigated difficult winters on Ste. Croix Island before settling in Port Royal.
Champlain sailed up the St. Lawrence River in 1608, building the Habitation at presen­t-day Quebec City, where he continued the fur trade.
Champlain he encoun­tered and defeated the Iroquois in 1609 and subseq­uently voyaged through Ontario. After Quebec fell to England in 1632, Champlain returned to France and died in Quebec City.
He called the indeginous people savages

2 viewpoints for when Cartier met Donnacona

MY NAME IS Domagaya, and I am an Iroquois. One year when I was a youngster, some men we had never seen before came to the shore of the river by our homes in large funny-­shaped boats. Their skin was pale and when they spoke, we did not understand them. Nor did they understand us. However, my father sent me and my brother to travel with them, and we soon got to know them and even understood them a little. When they returned us to our homes after a year away, the strange men stayed near us over the winter. Many of our people and the men became very sick. I had seen this sickness before, and showed our visitors how to treat the illness with juice from the annedda tree. After the winter was through, the men took some of us on their ship, and we went down the river until we came to a body of water so large that there seemed to be no end to it. I was very afraid and wanted to go back to my home. If I had known that these men would take us away from our homes, I never would have helped them.
MY NAME IS Jacques Cartier, and I am a French explorer. On my second voyage to the western world, I worked at building a relati­onship with the Iroquois people even though we did not understand each other's languages. I tried to tell them about the Christian religion and how their beliefs were false. They listened, but kept their own practices anyway. While they seemed to know a great deal about growing many things, they had a strange custom of putting tobacco in pipes and smoking it! I tried this but I hated it! My mouth felt as if it was filled with flaming pepper. I decided to bring some of these people back to France to show my king. I hoped they could convince the king of the riches of their land, so that he would offer me more money for further voyages. These people did not seem to understand why I was taking them. They were even fearful. I was offering them an opport­unity to see the world!
What could they have done to avoid this mis unders­tan­ding?

Cristopher Colombus Video


In the late 15th century (1401 - 1500), Spain embarked on a voyage to the East, sponsored by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella.
Christ­opher Columbus, a Genoese navigator, believed he would reach China by sailing west along the 28th parallel of the north latitude, but he had not accurately estimated the earth's circum­fer­ence.
Columbus embarked on a lengthy voyage from Spain, navigating a crew on the brink of mutiny, ensuring calm by keeping two altered logs.
On October 12, Columbus (his sailors that were on lookout) redisc­overed America, mistakenly believing they were in Cathay or the Spice Islands. He landed on an island in the Bahamas and returned to Spain in 1493.
Latitude lines are geogra­phical coordi­nates that are used to specify the north and south sides of the Earth


The Beothuk, a small minority Native people in Newfou­­nd­land, eventually died out, leaving only descen­­dants of their original inhabi­­tants.
The Beothuk people, a peaceful group, were signif­­ic­antly impacted by Europeans' arrival in Canada. The Europeans felt superior to the Beothuks, who lived on an island and had no escape routes. This led to the decline of their culture.
Portuguese explorers captured Beothuks in 1500, who were described as gentle. They traded furs for European goods, but Europeans were more interested in fish. They built fishing stations on Newfou­ndland, rarely staying over winter.
When the fishers left in the fall, the Beothuk people saw no harm to help themselves to what was left behind. It was a tradition to share possesions to the Beothuk. However the Europeans accused the Beothuk of stealing, and so European ships shot at a group of Beothuk for "­ste­ali­ng" their equipment.
More Europeans came to the island establ­ishing coastal settle­ments and a strong European culture. In the mid-1700s, hunters moved inland, destroying Beothuk campsites and stealing furs. Beothuks fought back, the European hunters started forming raiding parties and killed the Beothuk.
The government attempted to stop murders and trade with the Beothuks, offering rewards for their return. However, the Beothuks were too afraid to return, and many died from European diseases, leaving only a few remaining.
In the 1820s, hunters captured a family of Beothuks, including the father who drowned and the mother and two daughters. The women were taken to Twilli­ngate and handed over to John Peyton, the magist­rate. Despite their efforts, the Beothuks were weak and died, leaving only one remaining, Shanaw­dithit, to survive.


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