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Statistics Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.

Scientific Approach

Systematic Empiricism
Public Verifi­cation
Solvable Problems

Strategies in Behavioral Research

Experi­mental: Cause & Effect + Manipu­lation + Random Assignment + Control
Quasi-­Exp­eri­mental: Less Control and/or No Random Assignment

Empirical Cycle

Observ­ation: research question
Induction: observable facts --> general theory *
Deduction: general theory --> hypothesis (or research question) **
Testing: Collecting > Analyzing > Conclu­sions
Evalua­tion: Confir­mation or Falsif­ica­tion? Adjust­/Ex­pan­d/I­mprove? Critical Review
* Theory: Set of propos­itions that attempts to explain relati­onships among a set of concepts
** Hypoth­esis: Prediction following from theory (logic) -- could be conceptual (abstract) or operat­ional (concrete)

Proof or Disproof

Proof: Logically Impossible
Disproof: Practi­cally Impossible
* Method­olo­gical Pluralism is the variab­ility of methods

Variance: Measure of Variab­ility

Calcul­ating Variance

Total = Systematic + Error

Total All differ­ences between observ­ations
Systematic Differ­ences between groups
Error Unexpl­ained differ­ences

Systematic Variance


Error Variance

Variance Accounted For (VAF)

is the proportion of the total variance that is systematic variance
VAF = Systematic Variance / Total Variance
VAF = 0 = no relation = no systematic variance
VAF = 1 = perfect relation = no error variance

Cohen's Rule of Thumb (VAF)

Small 0.01
Medium 0.06
Large 0.15<