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The Population and Labour Force Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.

1. Population Growth

2 factors that affect popula­tion:
population growth rate (%) = change in popula­tio­n/total population X 100
1. Natural Growth rate:
Natural growth rate = birthrate - death rate
Birth rate = number of births per thousand of the population per year.
Death rate = number of deaths per thousand of the population per year.
1.1. The fertility rate
average number of children born to each woman of child bearing age (15 - 49)
In south Africa, The fertility rate dropped because a) people started moving from urban areas to cities - less kids - and b) HIV results in the death of many women of child bearing age.
1.2. Life Expectancy
average number of years a person is expected to live in a country.
The more developed the country, the higher the life expectancy will be. This is because developed country has better medical facili­ties, improved nutrition etc.

The Demogr­aphic Cycle


Population Size (conti­nued)

2. The Demogr­aphic Cycle
This shows the various stages in the develo­pment of a popula­tion. It tax approx 250 years to complete the cycle.
2.1. Stationary Phase
Birth Rate and Death Rate are high. Birth rate is high because economic growth and social change hasn't happened. The death rate is high because there do not have access to health care and health services.
2.2. Pre - Modern Phase
Birth rates high but death rate lower. Death rate is lower because healthcare has improved and there are better living condit­ions. The birth rate will increase rapidly since contra­cep­tives ain't a thing yet.
2.3. Modern Phase
Sharp increase in living standards. Birth rates decrease cause contra­cep­tives are a thing. Death rate continues to lower and people are living longer.
The population will reach a peak suring this time as the birth rate should decline at a slower rate than the death rate. This is a transi­tional phase in the Demogr­aphic Cycle.
2.4. Modern Stationary phase
The birth rate decreases faster than death rate. There is a high life expect­ancy, small families, and people are generally older. Modern middle class families are typical here.
2.5. Post Stationery Phase
Natural growth rate is low - Both low. Life expectancy is high, Developed countries are here. (virtually no population growth and a high LE). Most of the population is older.

Projected Growth rates

This is the change a countries population is expected to undergo.
factors which can affect this is: Natural growth rate, Life expect­ancy, Fertility trends, migration
E.g. Life expectancy dropped heavily with the emergence of HIV or Migration could change due to a heavy influx of refugees.


Net Migration = immigr­ation - emigration
1. Intern­ational Migration
moving from country to country
2. Internal migration
Movement within a country. E.h moving frin rural areas to urban areas for better jobs. This is called Urbani­sation.