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AP Biology Ch41 Digestive System Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by

AP Biology Ch41 Digestive System

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.

Different Kinds of Tissues

Epithelial Tissue
lines the interior and exterior body surfaces
Connective Tissue
supports the body and connects parts of the body to each other
Nervous Tissue
transmits nerve impulses (signals)
Muscle Tissue
changes its size and shape to move parts of the body

Feeding Strategies

only plant matter
both plant and animal matter
only animal matter
Suspension Feeder
filter small food particles from water
Whales, Clams, & Oysters
Substrate Feeder
live in or on their food source and eat their way through it
Caterp­illars & Larvae
Fluid Feeder
suck nutrie­nt-rich fluids from a host organism
Parasites & Nectar Eaters
Bulk Feeder
ingest large chunks of food
Most Organisms


Homeos­tasis is the body's ability to maintain internal conditions
Feedback Inhibition (also known as negative feedback or a negative feedback loop) occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctu­ations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other distur­bances

Required Nutrients

acts as a solvent (making transport of materials easier), maintains temper­ature homeos­tasis, gives structure to cells, and allows chemical reactions to take place
main "­fue­l" of the body, broken down by the digestive system and cellular respir­ation to supply ATP to cells
Fats (Essential Fatty Acids)
used to make the cell membrane, dissolves fat-so­luble molecules, stores energy, and are vital in the functi­oning of our nervous system
some our body can make and other must be consumed, most amount of functions
ORGANIC molecules that the body only needs a small amount of, may be water or fat soluble
INORGANIC molecules that the body needs in small amounts, often components of other molecules in the body

Organs of the Human Digestive Tract

mechan­ically breaks down food via chewing
flap that covers the trachea when swallowing
the tube connecting the mouth and stomach, uses perist­alsis
contains strong muscles for mechan­ically digesting food and secretes gastric juice to chemically break down food
Pyloric Sphincter
located at the bottom of the stomach joining to the small intestine