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CLEP Social Sciences and History Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by

Study notes for the CLEP Social Sciences and History Exam! 40% History, 20% Government, 20% Geography, 20% Economics

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.

US History: 1500 - 1680

1513: Juan Ponce De Leon, a Spanish explorer, arrived in Florida searching for the fountain of youth
1521: Ponce de Leon was killed by Native American Calusa
Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, a Spanish Explorer, search current day Southwest US for gold
1597: Guale Indians destroyed various Spanish Missions set up in the Southwest
1610: Spain establ­ished their first permanent settlement in Santa Fe, New Mexico
1680: 2000 Native Americans, united under leader Pope, rebelled against Spanish settlers and killed 400 of them

US History: 17th cent. Coloni­zation

Jamestown/ Chesapeake Colony
Massac­husetts Bay Colony
1607: Jamestown, VA founded as 1st English colony; founded by Virginia Co. as money making project
1620: Massac­husetts Bay Colony founded
1610: Harsh winter killed many colonists aka "The Starving Time"
Mass. Bay - comprised of uber- protes­tants AND pilgrims
1612: Powhatan, Native Chief, est. trade with Jamestown and John Smith; trading food, crops and fur for guns, iron and tools
Pilgrims seeking asylum create and sign the Mayflower Compact
1618: Virginia Co. offered Headright System: 50 acres of land for each person a settler paid to bring over (cue indentured servants)
Squanto, a Native American, gave the pilgrims food and resources to survive
1619: 1st shipment of African slaves arrived in VA
1629: Cambridge Agreement - stated Mass Bay board Members would live in the US not Britain
1622: Indian Rebellion against the English Settlers for encroa­ching on land
Mass. Colony began buying land, eventually RI, from Natives WITH strings attached; they needed to submit to English Authority
1624: 200,000 pounds of tobacco produced each year
1637: The Pequot War - Conflict with English and Natives began in Mass.; massacred 500 pequot natives
1632: Maryland founded as 2nd Chesapeake Colony granted to Cecilus Calvert
1640: the first slaves arrive in Massac­husetts
1644: Another Native Uprising failed so remaining 2000 Natives signed treaty to consign themselves to reserv­ations in West Virgninia
1675: King Philips War/Me­tacom's War - Natives launched attack on New England (Natives lost)
Virginia Company became the Royal Company
1691 - Pilgrims colony was absorbed by Mass. Bay colony

US History: 17th Cent. Coloni­zation Cont.

New Amsterdam
1624: Dutch bought Manhattan from Natives and establ­ished New Amsterdam
1681: Pennsy­lvania land was given to William Penn by Charles II
it was founded by busine­ssmen and was a commercial venture
Penn wanted a safe place for quakers to live; they strongly opposed slavery
Jews and Quakers were welcomes, Natives were pushed out. Women could own property
1737: Pennsy­lvanian colonists got the "­walking purcha­se"
1664: English took over the colony from the Dutch; changing New Amsterdam to New York
Natives agreed to cede land bound by the distance a man could walk in 36 hours

US History: 17th Cent. Coloni­zation Cont. 2

1663: King Charles II gave 8 propri­etors the right to colonize North of Florida (still held by Spanish)
1686: King James II consol­idated CT, Plymouth, MA, NH, RI, NY and East/West Jersey into The Dominion ruled by NY Gov. Edmund Andros
1688: The Glorious Revolution - reversed The Dominion and colonies reasserted indepe­ndence
1690: English Toleration Act - all protes­tants could worship freely in the colonies
1691: Salem Witch Trials began ( killing 14 people)

US History: 7 Years War

1754- 1763: AKA French and Indian War
Began due to trade relations between french fur traders, colonists and native americans
British believed in Mercan­talism - where govt regulates economy to increase national power
Britian was involved in the triangular trade - exchange of slaves, tobacco, raw sugar and finished goods between Britain, Colonies and Africa
1754: George Washington led Brits in attack on French Territory in W. Penn. and was a fail
1755: Another unsucc­essful Brit attack on Fort Duquesne; French and Natives killed 2/3 of Brit forces
1755-57: Brits continued to lose but got control of part of Nova Scotia
1759: Brits captured Fort Duquesne, Ticond­eroga, and Louisberg
1760: Brits beat French near Quebec and Montreal fell
1763: Treaty of Paris ended the war

Forms of Government

single family rules for genera­tions, sovere­ignty is embodied by 1 person; Absolute Monarchy means ruler has complete rule of govern­ment; Consti­tut­ional Monarchy where ruler has figurehead power with support of other govt
small group of indivi­duals rule; charac­terized by tyrann­ical, author­itarian rule with little democratic say
people are given direct role in choosing their leader­ship; fair repres­ent­ation with little to no unchecked power or authority
absence of govern­ment; no regula­tions or central governing system
author­itarian form of govern­ment; usually single ruler without limita­tions, backed by widespread propag­anda; usually has survei­llance, controls mass media, intimi­dating police force and suppre­ssing subjects

US Gov. - Branches of Government

Executive Branch
elected President; execute the laws; reelected every 4 years
Legisl­ative Branch
House of Repres­ent­atives & Senate; makes the laws; 435 HoR reelected every 2 years; 100 Senators reelected every 6 years
Judical Branch
Supreme Court; upholds the laws; nominated by President agreed on by Senate; serve life terms
Each were designed to check and balance one another; Legisl­ative Branch has the most power of the 3

US Gov - Executive Branch

Lincoln (16th Pres)
Lead during Civil War; abolished slavery with Emanci­pation Procla­mation; saw division and reunion of USA
Washington (1st Pres)
1st unanim­ously elected president; great economic manage­ment,
FDR (32nd Pres)
Served more than 2 terms; Created New Deal to end the Great Depres­sion; Intn'l relations in WWII
T. Roosevelt (26th Pres)
Promoted Conser­vation; Saw Panama Canal built; Created Food Safety laws, Square Deal; Monroe Doctrine upheld
Eisenhower (34th Pres)
founded NASA; created Interstate Highway program
Truman (33rd Pres)
took over when FDR died in office; led Country through end of WWII
Jefferson (3rd Pres)
Anti-F­ede­ralist; believed in power of the people; expanded US with Louisiana Purchase
JFK (35th Pres)
youngest President; led country out of recession; Cuban Missle Crisis; New Frontier Project; Initiated CIvil Rights Acts
Reagan (40th Pres)
Reagan­omics; Tax cuts and Tax Revision acts; Cold War
Johnson (36th Pres)
passed Medicare and Medicaid programs, passed Civil Right Act of 1964; Voting Rights Act in 1965
Most Notable Presidents and associated accomp­lis­hments

US Gov. - Court Cases

Marbury vs. Madison (1803)
estabi­lshed that Supreme Court has right to declare laws uncons­tit­utional (judicial review); defined boundary between executive and judicial branches
McCulloch vs. Maryland (1819)
establ­ished implied power that the Fed. gov. has over the states gov.
Brown vs. Board of Ed (1954)
separate but equal deemed uncons­tit­uti­onal; desegr­egated schools
Gideon vs. Wainwright (1963)
all have a right to an attorney even if they cant afford one;
Miranda vs. Arizona (1966)
police need to advise people of their rights before questi­oning
Loving vs. Virginia (1967)
invali­dated laws outlawing interr­acial marriage
Roe vs. Wade (1973)
right to privacy under 14th amendment to have an abortion

US Gov. - Important Terms

motion to end a debate in Senate; 60 votes needed
ex post facto
law that decrees something illegal that happened before the law was passed;
senate tactic; a senator in the minority on a bill talks excess­ively on the floor until majority backs down and bill is killed
redist­ricting neighb­orhoods to benefit the political party in charge; used by both political parties
habeas corpus
the right to be brought before a judge;cant be unlawfully detained
horizontal federalism
how state govern­ments relate to one another
interest group
organi­zation of people with common interest working together to influence the government
iron triangle
alliance of groups with interest in a policy area; Bureau­crats from an agency; interest groups affected; legisl­atures from approp­riate committees
where 2 or more members in congress agree to support each others bills

Ancient Civs Indus River Valley

3000 BCE - 1750 BCE
Near Modern Day India; along the Indus River which flooded predic­tably 2x a year
Floods made river banks farmable land with silt deposits; major cities­:Ha­rappa and Mohenjo Daro
centra­lized drainage systems in the cities, using gravity to pull waste away
public baths were central features, traded seals (with emblems), cotton cloth, and bronze
peaceful with no weapons recovered, declined possibly due to conquests, disaster, or earthquake

Ancient Civs Mesopo­tamia

5500 BCE - 2000 BCE
Along the Tigrus and Euphrades Rivers; fertile crescent
territ­orial kingdom, Main cities: Uruk, Sumer, Babylon; built on and used slave labor
built Ziggurats (temples) and wrote in cuneiform; over time focus shift from temples to palaces and from gods to people
Around 2000 BCE Mesopo­tamia declined into a set of city-s­tates
Hammurabi ruled Babylon from 1792 BCE- 1750 BCE; instituted strict laws under Hammur­abi's code
Babylon eventually was conquered by the Kassities and then the Assyrians (notably violent)
911 BCE: Neo-As­syrian Empire grew from main cities of Ashur and Nineveh; spread to all of Mesopo­tamia, E. Coast of Medite­rranean and Egypt (680 BCE)
612 BCE: Nineveh conquered and fell

Ancient Civis Egypt

3000 BCE - 332 BCE
Along the Nile River, regular and predic­table flooding patterns with a calm current; able to use basin irrigation systems; traded timber and gold
2649-2152: Old Kingdom Egypt; pyramids built by slaves and poor (2575-2465 BCE); Ra the sun god worshi­pped, Pharoahs ruled as demigods; 2 types of writing: Hierog­lyphics and demotic
2040-1640: Middle Kingdom; Pharoahs from Nubia, Ammun was god eventually merged with Ra to become Ammun-Ra; Egypt conquered by many during this time including Hyksos (event­ually expelled)
1550-1070: New Kingdom; military expansion like empire; expanded with military feats and trade; conflicts with Assyrians, Persians, Romans and Alex the Great

Economics - Economic Activities

Primary Economic Activities
type of operation extracting or refining natural resources; mining, agricu­lture, forestry, or fishing
Secondary Economic Activities
processing raw materials; timber into furniture, iron-ore into steel, factories with input and output
Tertiary Economic Activities
service industry or retail sector; tourism, media, clerical services, insurance, banking, law, and health care

Economics - Termin­ology

marginal utility
used to determine how much of an item consumers are willing to purchase; buying a candy bar to satisfy a sweet tooth and having a second candy bar but not enjoying it as much as the 1st shows decreased marginal utility
total utility
the total amount of satisf­action or fullfi­llment a consumer gets from consuming a product or service
supply curve
how products and prices relate to one another in the amount they cost, the amount they are needed (demand) and the amount available (supply)
shift right in supply curves
more sellers = more supply, technology that increases production efficiency
shift left in supply curves
cost of resources increases = lower supply; expect­ation of increased prices = temporary decrease in supply to increase demand
equili­brium price
where supply and demand curves intersect; prices are stable; if 1000 tops are manufa­ctured and sold at 2 dollars and 1000 people are willing to buy at the $2 price it is the equili­brium price