Politics of Development
A political process creating winners and losers while requiring cooperation among powerful competing interests and coalitions.
The geographic distribution of economic activities such as production and employment
The most politically relevant aspect of economic geography
Opportunities are often distributed unevenly across space; both within and across countries.
Inequalities exist in the opportunities for and remuneration of workers with different skill sets.
Political Context in Development
Its coverage is extraordinarily broad and in key ways binding
Much of daily life and opportunity is determined by the political context via its structures, policies, and operations.
It includes governmental systems and structures and their responsibilities in providing key services
Provides impetus, motive, and opportunity for individuals to actively engage in the context
Much of who we feel we are is reflected in the systems and practices of our governing; and if it is not, we often engage through various forms of activism to assure that it is.
The values that the political structures and actors endorse and enact
The currency of the political context is control or regulation of access, opportunity, freedoms, rights, self-determination, and self-expression.
The way governing bodies approach this control has unavoidable and often determinative impact on the day to day wellbeing of individuals.
Theories of Development
Stimulated by the situation in the mid 20th century when decolonization occurred and the economic disparity between European and underdevelopment nations became obvious.
A systematic process to move underdeveloped countries to a more sophisticated level of development.
Explains inequality within or between states by identifying different values, systems, and ideas.
Stresses the importance of political development in the progress and climactic improvement of nations' economic standing and acknowledges social and cultural reforms/
Emergence of Modernization Theory
The freedom of the Third World countries from colonization and the strategies employed during the Cold War by Western countries in order to prevent these countries from being controlled by communists.
Have a higher capacity to deal with the function of national identity, legitimacy, penetration, participation, and distribution.
Approach to understanding economic underdevelopment; Emphasizes the presumed constraints imposed by the global political and economic order.
Underdevelopment is mainly caused by the peripheral position of affected countries in the world economy
The system of capitalistic world causes labor upheaval that damages domestic economies of under-developed countries. It diminishes the economic growth rate and ends in the increased inequality of income thus creating a gap between major and minor countries.
Origin of Dependence Theory
First proposed in the late 1950s by the Argentine economist and statesman Raul Prebisch, and gained prominence in the 60s and 70s.
World Systems Theory
Deals with different forms of capitalism world-wide; takes a world-centric view and focuses on the relationship between countries.
Explains inequality by identifying different cultures and the role of the state in international connections,
Wallerstein's (1979) World Systems Theory
WST is a multiple cultural system with a division of labor.
Poor labor in which different divisions are areas are dependent upon each other in exchanging the provisions of those areas
Uses a global mechanism of greater integration with particular emphasis on the sphere of economic transactions.
A US and Europe-centric positive model of development whose feature is the spread of capitalism around the globe.
Focus of Globalization Theory
Communications and international ties; these are directed at cultural and economic factors in communication systems.
Globalization: Factors in Global Connection
Cultural element that stresses the social and economic situation of the nation
Progress of technology and communication has opened up opportunities for local businesses allowing all kinds of economic relations
Development of sophisticated systems of communication and globalized technologies thus making nations unified.
Can have 2 viewpoints of the outcomes of being unified: external conditions and outward system and the internal or domestice situation of every country within.
Internal or domestic situation of every country within
The units of analysis lead to the country's variables of economic growth or social indicators.
A condition in which one human being was owned by another.
A form of dependent labor performed by a non-family member.
Considered by law as property or chattel.
Deprived of most of the rights ordinarily held by free persons.
Generation of Slaves
Captures in war, (either by design) as a form of incentive to warriors, as an accidental by-product or as a way of disposing of enemy troops or civilians.
Household (patriarchal or domestic slavery), Temple (state and military slavery)
Development and Health
The absence of illnesses
The ability of people to develop to their potential during their entire lives.
An asset individuals possess, which has instrinsic value—being healthy is a very important source of wellbeing
Instrumental Terms of Health
Impacts economic growth. It reduces production losses due to worker illness.
Increases the productivity of adult as a result of better nutrition
Lowers absenteeism rates and improves learning among school children.
Health and Economic Growth
Affects it directly through laboe productivity and the economic burden of illnesses.
Impacts indirectly since aspects such as child health affect the future income of people through the impact of health has on education.
Political Factors and Development
A form or system of government; refers to the norms and rules regarding individual freedom and collective equality.
Influences the policies that affect personal and public economic development.
Refers to the reliability and durability of a government's structures. The more stable a political system is, the less risk a business operating in that country will face.
Nations where there is a high risk of terrorism or internal conflicts are less stable. Less stable systems are less likely to see an increase in economic development because they are risky to operate in.
Governments need to do lots of things to encourage development—they need to build and maintain infrastructure, and raise and spend finance wisely, on the right projects.
Level of Corruption
Identifies the level of dishonest, unethical, and illegal practices that are imposed on people and business operating in a region.
Corruption can include bribing politicians, local companies for materials, or paying to prevent competitors from entering the market; causing a monopoly that makes services overly expensive.
These are local and international policies that impact the importation or exportation of goods.
Q/A/C: Regime Type
How can a regime affect the economic development?
As understood regime is referred to as norms, rules, and decision-making procedures that converges the expectations of the individual actors within a state. The institutionalized rules and decisions can determine the acceptability or the approval of such development changes that could impact in the progress of the state.
How does it affect the policies of a government if it is a presidential for example?
Within a presidential regime, policies or policy-making may have the risk of being heavily biased through influences in various bodies in the government that are involved in the policy making process. For example in the Marcos Regime, the president can be influenced by vested interests that can manipulate the legislative branch in formulating policies with the courtesy of the influence from the president.
Is there a difference when it comes to the policy making function of a government if its a presidential or parliamentary system of government?
Yes. In a presidential, there is a single person that can be influences by vested interests. More so, the president and the legislative are independent as a body in the government. When it comes to parliamentary, the PM cannot impose or implement a law on their own.
Can a PM unilaterally act on its own?
No, a PM cannot force his own ideas over his party, much so to the whole parliament itself.
Q/A/C: Political Management
How can political management affect the economic development?
We have to take note how our officials reflect the values that we possess. In principle, they are there because they represent our values. When it comes to political management, who is the development for? You can't remove the fact that it is political on how they allocate the resources, and so on and so forth. Basically you can't divide it from how development works.
Rostow's (1962) Five Stages of Growth
STAGE 1: Traditional Societies
Economies are dominated by subsistence farming.
Societies have little wealth to invest and limited access to modern industry and technology.
Contains cultural barriers to development
STAGE 2: The Preconditions for Take Off
Western aid packages brings western values, practices and expertise into the society.
Forms of Western Aid Packages
Science and Technology; to improve agriculture.
Infrastructure; improving roads and cities
Industry; western companies establishing factories
STAGE 3: Take Off
Society experiences economic growth as new modern practices become the norm.
Profits are reinvested in infrastructures and new entrepreneurial class emerges and urbanized that is willing to invest further and take risks
Begins to export goods.
STAGE 4: The Drive to Maturity
More economic growth and investment in education, media, and birth control.
The population start to realize new opportunities opening up and strive to make the most of their lives.
STAGE 5: The Age of High Mass Consumption
Economic growth and production are at Western level of development.
Modernization: Types of Assistance
It speeds up the introduction of Western values such as universalism, individualism, competition, and achievement measured by examinations.
A way of breaking the link between family and children.
Important to diffuse ideas; non-traditional such as family planning and democracy.
The theory is that if populations are packed more closely together, new ideas are more likely to spread than amongst diffuse rural populations.
Earliest and historically numerous of economic systems which tradition serves as the central means of bestowing order.
The Creation of a Central Apparatus of Command and Rulership
Origin of the second of the great systems of social coordination; from ancient clusters of population impressive civilizations emerged in Egypt, China, and India during the 3rd millennium BCE, bringing with them dazzling advances in culture and potent instrument of state power as a new moving force in history.
European Colonial Rule
Spanish Colonies; characterized by sizeable indigenous populations and large reserves of gold and silver, forced labor was instituted.
Use of slavery and forced labor resulted in economic and political inequality, which inhibited long-term economic development.
Colonization and Development
It is more than the plundering of a military and economically weaker culture by a more powerful nation.
Often resulted in severe demographic crises.
History of Colonialism
Plays a pivotal role in determining a nation's disposition toward economic and social change.
Countries are not necessarily condemned mechanistically to repeat the processes and behavioral patterns established in the past.*
Health and State of Development
The relationship between the health of a population and the state of development of a society is complex and varies over time.
One of the main benefits of development.
Results partly from an increase in income and partly from scientific progress in the fight against disease and disability.
Health can be considered part of a society's capital stock, as long as the essential differences between this type of capital and physical capital are recognized.