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Bio Finals Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.

Cell Division

Genome - entire DNA
Chromatin - Fiber Dna
Chromosome - Condense single DNA
cycle cycle = cell growth + cell division
G1 phase: increase cell mass, 2x proteins, organe­lles, cytoplasm. DNA: chromatin (10h)
S phase: 2x DNA content (cell is still 2N). DNA: Sister chromatids (9h)
G2 phase: enzymes required for mitosis, complete growth (4h)
M phase: Mitosis + cytoki­nesis (1h)
Prophase: Chromo­somes condense (appear as 2 sister chroma­tids)
Centro­somes move apart, mitotic spindle forms
Promet­aphase: Nuclear envelope fragments and disappears
spindle microt­ubules attach to kineto­chore at centromere
Metaphase: Chromo­somes lined at the equator of the cell (metaphase plate)
Anaphase: Kineto­chore microt­ubule shorten; spindle poles move apart
Sister chromatids separated and move to opposite poles of the cell
Telophase: Nuclear envelope reform, chromosome less condensed
contra­ctile ring form, spindle microt­ubules depoly­merised
Cytoki­nesis: Contra­ctile ring pinches cell into 2, each with a nucleus
cytoplasm divided into 2
chi test: (o -e)^2/e
df = phases - 1


2n -> 4 daughter cells with n
Genetic variation: -indep­endent assortment of homologous chromosome at metaphase I
-Crossing over between homologous chromosome at prophase I
-Random fertil­isation
Non-di­sju­nction: spindle fibres fail to separate sister chromatids or homologous chromo­somes
monosomy: 2n -1
trisomy : 2n + 1
ds = trisomy 21
turner = X
triplex = XXX
klinef­elter = XXY
Jacob = XYY

Mode of inheri­tance

Locus: Location of a specific gene in a chromosome
Allele: altern­ative version of the same gene
Determines contra­sting traits of the same character
Character: heritable features that varies among indivi­duals
Trait: variant for each character
Reciprocal Cross: To test the role of parental sex on a given inheri­tance pattern
Parent organism must be true breeding
c1: wt f x m m c2: m f x wt m

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