The Drive for Italian Unification
Count Camillo di Cavour, noble, Piedmont-Sardinia
Founded Il Risorgimento (The Resurgence) newspaper
Goals: modernize and strengthen Piedmont economically
make it central engine of unification for Italy
create new Italian state as constitutional monarchy.
To accompish: lowered tariffis, build railroad and balanced budget.
Allied w/ Gb and France during Crimean War to win France against Austria
Battles of Solferino and Magenta oust Austrians from Lombardy
Enter Garibaldi and his red shirt army w/ goal of conquering Kingdom of Naples has popular support, opposing armies lack enthusiasm.
Stopped by Cavour. Kingdom of Italy declared March 1861 w/ Victor Emmanuel II as monarch and a constitution. New flag.
Started as loose Germanic Confederation dominated by Austria
Closest thing to unity is Zollverein (German customs union)
Enter Bismark (Prussia) and Realpolitik (policy of realism/necessity)
Used conflict over Schleswig and Holtstein to sow seed of fight w/ Austria
Got Austria to declare war on Prussia (Austro-Prussian war) and expelled Austria from new North German Confederation, ruled by autocracy.
New enemy to rally round is France- leads to Franco-Prussian war. Lured into war with forged telegraph.
Jan 18 1871 Verailles meeting of German states makes Prussia's King William I emperor of new German Empire and had a constitution. Known as The 2nd Reich.
US & Canada
Conflict between southern and north. South =s agrarian, states rights, slave labor. North = industrial, federal power, no slaves. Leads to civil war with Lincoln (north) and Jefferson Davis (South). Lasted 4 years, abolished slavery.
Canada: William Lyon Mackenzie called for independence from Britain 1837
Britain responds by granting Canada some autonomy. In 1867, British North American Act makes Canada a single nation w/ own constitution.
Austrian and Ottoman Empires, France and Russia
Nationalism pulled Austria apart b/c it had many diff. ethnic groups (Czechs, Serbs, Romanians, Hungarians) who wanted own independence.
Austria defeated by Prussia in Austro-Prussian war, Francis Joseph agrees to dual government w/ Hungarians: Compromise of 1867 sets up dual monarch of Austria Hungary (diff parliament but same ruler--House of Habsburg). Common protection against other nationalistic ethnic groups.
Ottoman Empire controlled by Turks had grown weak. Already lost Serbia, Greece, Romanian lost in 1878. Greatest threat was nationalistic Balkan provinces. The Bulgars fought then Bosnia & Herzegovina, then Serbia and Russia. Treaty of Berlin 1878 gave Bulgaria independence and B &H under Austria-Hungary. End of Turk rule.
France and Russia both use reforms to win public support. Napoleon III (nephew of Napoleon) stood for order, reform and national grandeur. Seized power in coup when he can't run again and gives vote to all men. Built economy and infrastructure. Prefect of Paris, George Haussmann, rebuilt Paris into modern model. Lost power as a result of bad foreign policy (Crimean War and War with Prussia) and declining prosperity
Russia was autocratic and feudal till Crimean War (1853) w/ Ottoman Turks. War humbles Russia. Serfs and peasants revolt. Tsar Alexander II reforms to modernize and strengthen Russia. Liberates serfs and peasants. Not entirely successful at modernizing Russia. Tries to quell rebellion in Poland, continued unrest from working class and intellectuals.