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Nationalism and Statebuilding Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by

Chapter 19 in West Volume II

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.

The Drive for Italian Unific­ation

Count Camillo di Cavour, noble, Piedmo­nt-­Sar­dinia
Founded Il Risorg­imento (The Resurg­ence) newspaper
Goals: modernize and strengthen Piedmont econom­ically
make it central engine of unific­ation for Italy
create new Italian state as consti­tut­ional monarchy.
To accompish: lowered tariffis, build railroad and balanced budget.
Allied w/ Gb and France during Crimean War to win France against Austria
Battles of Solferino and Magenta oust Austrians from Lombardy
Enter Garibaldi and his red shirt army w/ goal of conquering Kingdom of Naples has popular support, opposing armies lack enthus­iasm.
Stopped by Cavour. Kingdom of Italy declared March 1861 w/ Victor Emmanuel II as monarch and a consti­tution. New flag.

German Unific­ation

Started as loose Germanic Confed­eration dominated by Austria
Closest thing to unity is Zollverein (German customs union)
Enter Bismark (Prussia) and Realpo­litik (policy of realis­m/n­ece­ssity)
Used conflict over Schleswig and Holtstein to sow seed of fight w/ Austria
Got Austria to declare war on Prussia (Austr­o-P­russian war) and expelled Austria from new North German Confed­era­tion, ruled by autocracy.
New enemy to rally round is France- leads to Franco­-Pr­ussian war. Lured into war with forged telegraph.
Jan 18 1871 Verailles meeting of German states makes Prussia's King William I emperor of new German Empire and had a consti­tution. Known as The 2nd Reich.

US & Canada

Conflict between southern and north. South =s agrarian, states rights, slave labor. North = indust­rial, federal power, no slaves. Leads to civil war with Lincoln (north) and Jefferson Davis (South). Lasted 4 years, abolished slavery.

Canada: William Lyon Mackenzie called for indepe­ndence from Britain 1837
Britain responds by granting Canada some autonomy. In 1867, British North American Act makes Canada a single nation w/ own consti­tution.

Austrian and Ottoman Empires, France and Russia

Nation­alism pulled Austria apart b/c it had many diff. ethnic groups (Czechs, Serbs, Romanians, Hungar­ians) who wanted own indepe­ndence.
Austria defeated by Prussia in Austro­-Pr­ussian war, Francis Joseph agrees to dual government w/ Hungar­ians: Compromise of 1867 sets up dual monarch of Austria Hungary (diff parliament but same ruler-­-House of Habsburg). Common protection against other nation­alistic ethnic groups.

Ottoman Empire controlled by Turks had grown weak. Already lost Serbia, Greece, Romanian lost in 1878. Greatest threat was nation­alistic Balkan provinces. The Bulgars fought then Bosnia & Herzeg­ovina, then Serbia and Russia. Treaty of Berlin 1878 gave Bulgaria indepe­ndence and B &H under Austri­a-H­ungary. End of Turk rule.

France and Russia both use reforms to win public support. Napoleon III (nephew of Napoleon) stood for order, reform and national grandeur. Seized power in coup when he can't run again and gives vote to all men. Built economy and infras­tru­cture. Prefect of Paris, George Haussmann, rebuilt Paris into modern model. Lost power as a result of bad foreign policy (Crimean War and War with Prussia) and declining prosperity

Russia was autocratic and feudal till Crimean War (1853) w/ Ottoman Turks. War humbles Russia. Serfs and peasants revolt. Tsar Alexander II reforms to modernize and strengthen Russia. Liberates serfs and peasants. Not entirely successful at modern­izing Russia. Tries to quell rebellion in Poland, continued unrest from working class and intell­ect­uals.