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Science 09 - Chemistry Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.

Matter, Mass, Volume

mat - anything with mass & volume
mas - quantity of substance contained, usually measured in grams or kilograms
v - amount of space occupied, usually measured in millil­itres, litres, or cubic center­metres


ratio of mass to volume, m/v

State of Matter & Fluid

solid - fixed mass, volume, and shape
liquid­/fluid - fixed mass and volume
gas/fluid - fixed mass and container has fixed volume
fluid - matter that can flow (ex: liquid, gas), no fixed shapes, takes on the shape of the container

Physical Property

p - type of charac­ter­istics that can be observed or measured w/out changing its identity of


not measurable
malleable - able to be flattened into sheets
ductile - able to be stretched into wires
crysta­lline structure - shape of appearance of crystals


solubility - ability to dissolve in water
conduc­tivity - ability to conduct electr­icity tor heat
density - ratio of mass to volume
viscosity - resistance to flow

Chemical Property

ability to react chemically with other substances to form new substances
can only establish when compos­ition of matter is altered (ex: reacti­vity)

Pure substances

homogenous - uniform apperance
has a unique set of properties
cannot turn into simpler substances by physical means
can be further classified as element or compound

Elements & Compounds

e - simplest pure substance, cannot be broken down or separated into simpler substances
reason - it's already simple since each elements is made of 1 kind of atom
have different names in different languages
chemical symbols consist of 1 or 2 letters, 1st is capita­lized
c - composed of 2 or more elements in a specific way, can be changed into simpler substances by chemical means


made of 2 or more substa­nces, physically put together
can be separated into simpler substances by physical means


properties - hard, shiny, malleable, ductile, good conductors of heat and electr­icity
left of the staircase of Periodic Table


properties - gas or brittle solid at room temper­ature, not malleable or ductile, dull, poor conductors of heat and electr­icity
right of the staircase


elements that shares some properties of metals and non-metals
properties - brittle solid, can be dull or shiny, may conduct electr­icity, poor conductor of heat

Hydrogen & Oxygen

H - makes up 90% of the atoms in the universe
O - produced by plants as a by-product of photos­ynt­hesis, combined w/ sugar in our cells to release energy

Iron, Silver, Mercury, Mercury Vapour

Fe - an important material in struct­ures, mixed w/ carbon makes steel, can rust when exposed to water & oxygen
Ag - better than other metal at conducting heat & electr­icity and reflecting light
Hg - a poisonous metal as liquid at room temper­ature

Chlorine, Silicon, Semico­nductor

Cl - forms table salt when combined w/ sodium
Si - 2nd most common element, after oxygen in earth's crust, widely used as a semico­nductor in manufa­cturing computer chips and hardware
s - a poor conductor of electr­icity at low temper­ature but a good c at high temper­ature

Physical Change

occurs when no new substances form, but there may be a change in appearance

Chemical Change & Precip­itate

occurs when substances combine (react) to form new substances
evidence: colour change, heat, light, or sound produced, bubbles of gas, precip­itate
p - solid produced in mixing 2 solutions

Reactants & Products

r - substances that are going to react
p - new substances that are produced


study of matter and its change
includes: facts & observ­ations about matter, summarize patterns of behaviour in matter, theories that explain the patterns of behaviour in matter


help to visualize objects or processes that cannot be seen directly


provides a scientific explan­ation based on the results of experi­men­tation

Particle Model of Matter

all matter is made of small particles that are too small to be seen with eye and even a microscope
there are spaces between the particles, the amount of spaces varies w/ the state of matter (greatest in gas, least in solid)
the particles are always moving, collides w/ each other & the container in liquid & gas
particles are attracted to one another, strength depends on the type of particles

Thermal Energy, Heat, Collision, Temper­ature

te - the total kinetic energy of all the particles in a substance
h - thermal energy that is transf­erred from 1 body to another
c - particles transf­erring kinetic energy
t - the average kinetic energy of the particle in a substance
particles in hot objects have more kinetic energy and move faster

Kinetic Molecular Theory

explains how changes in the kinetic energy of the particles can result in changes in state
energy makes particles move, more energy the particles have from heating, the faster they move and farther apart they get

Thermal Expansion, Thermal Contra­ction

increase in volume of a substance when its temper­ature is raised
the decreased in volume of a substance when its temper­ature is lowered

Change of State by Heating

particles in solids are tightly packed together = cannot move freely (fixed in position), holds a definite shape, can and do vibrate constantly
as heat is added, kinetic energy of the par increase and begin to collide w/ each other = more spaces is created between the particles
if enough heat is aded, the solid will melt
par in liquid are close (in contact w/each other) but have enough space to slide past, don not hold a shape instead take on the shape of its container
as heat is added to a liquid, kinetic energy of pars increase, collide more = more space created
some par gain enough energy to break free, w/ enough heat , the liquid will boil
pars in gas are highly energetic, can move freely and quickly in all direct­ions, spread out to fill their container, gas is mostly empty space as pars are far apart

Temper­ature which Change of State Occurs

melting point - temper­ature where solid melts o liquid (ex: 0 celcius for water)
boiling point - temper­ature where liquid boils to gas (100 celcius for water), substances condense at the same temp at which they boil
freezing point - temper­ature where liquid freezes to solid, same temper­ature as melting point, substances freeze at the same temp at which they melt

Chemical Bonds (Chemical & Physical)

c - new substances are produced in the process of breaking existing chemical bonds and forming new bonds
chemical bonds - forces that hold 2 or more atoms together
a change in compos­ition occurs, changes are difficult to reverse
p - bonds hold atoms together (in molecules and ions), do not change, easier to reverse

Energy Change, Exothe­rmic, Endoth­ermic

ec - energy is either released to the enviro­nment or absorbed from the enviro­nment due to energy change in matter chemical change
energy change in a chemical change might or might not be noticeable
ex - release of energy in the form of heat and light
en - absorption of energy

Corrosion (Chemical Change)

the process where metals are broken down
rusting - corrosion of iron, rust is produced in a chemical reaction between iron and water containing dissolved oxygen gas = structural failure