Neuro dysfunction patterns by injury
Frontal lobe: contralateral weakness, personality changes/ antisocial behavior, broca's aphasia, delayed or poor initiation.
Parietal Lobe: constructional apraxia and anosognosia, Wernicke's aphasia, homonymous visual defects, impaired language comprehension.
Occipital Lobe: variety of visual deficits (homonymous hemianopsia, visual agnosia, cortical blindness), impaired extra-ocular muscle movement
Temporal Lobe: hearing impairments, memory and learning deficits, wernicke's aphasia, antisocial behaviors
Cerebellum: Ataxia, lack of trunck and extremity coordination, intention tremors, balance deficits, dysdiadochokinesia, dysmetria
Basal Ganglia: bradykinesia and akinesia, resting tremors, rigidity, athetosis, chorea,
Thalamus: thalamic pain syndrome, altered relay of sensory information
Hypothalamus: altered basic homeostasis of body functions, poor autonomic nervous system function, altered function of anterior pituitary gland (ADH secretion and reproduction)
brainstem: Altered consciousness, contralateral hemiparesis or hemiplegia, cranial nerve palsy, altered respiratory patterns, attention deficits.
Right hemisphere: left sided sensory and motor deficits, unable to understand nonverbal communication, difficulty in sustaining movements, poor hand eye coordination and kinesthetic awareness, quick and impulsive, overestimation of abilities.
Left hemisphere: right sided sensory and motor deficits, difficulty understanding and producing language, difficulty sequencing movements, poor logical and rational thought, slow cautious anxious, self depreciating.
Functions of the brain
primary motor cortex responsible for voluntary movements on contralateral side. Broca's area (motor components of speech), cognition, judgement, attention, abstract thinking and emotional control
primary sensory cortex integrates sensation from contralateral side of body, short term memory, perception of touch, proprioception pain, and temp sensations
Primary auditory cortex, associative auditory cortex, wernicke's area (comprhension of spoken word), long term memory, visual perception, primary visual cortex
visual association cortex (processes visual info and applies meaning)
contains centers for vital sign functioning of the cardiac, respiratory, and vasomotor centers,. maintains consciousness and arousal
critical for maintaing homeostasis. controls primitive drivesrelated to age, agression, emotion, thirst, hunger, sleep wake cycle. Damage to this area can cause problems with temp, water, and behavioral regulation.
regulates posture and muscle tone
maintains posture and voluntary muscle movement control
contains cranial nerve nuclei, damage damage can lead to variety of cranial nerve dysfunctions
gait deviations seen w/ stroke
Increased trunk and LE muscle tone
Inadequate hip and knee flexion, increased tone in trunk and LE
Increased extensor tone, inadequate hip and knee flex, increased PF in ankle or footdrop
Inadequate hip flexion
Increased extensor tone, flaccid LE
decreased knee flexion during swing
Increased LE extensor tone, weak hip flex
excessive flex during stance
weakness or flaccidity in LE, increased flex tone in the LE
hyper extension during stance
hip retraction, increased extensor tone in LE, weakness in hamstrings, quads, gluteus maximus
Instability during stance
increased LE flex tone , flaccidity or weakness of extensor muscles.
increased ext tone, flaccidity
increased tone in specific muscle groups, flaccidity
increased flexor tone in toe muscles.
Neuro cranial nerves
turns eye up, down, and in
screen: observe position of eye
Test: persuit eye movements
Impaired eye movments, eye deviation from normal position, ptosis (drooping eyelid), pupillary dilation
cerebrovasculary accident, myasthenia Gravis
turns adducted eye down
screen: test pain; light touch sensations forehead, cheecks, jaw, (eyes closed)
corneal reflex; touch lightly with wisp of cotton
palpate muscles; have pt clench teeth, hold against resistance
Findings: loss of facial sensation, numbness, loss of corneal reflex ipsilaterally; weakness, waisting of muscles for mastication
trigeminal neuralgia, MS
muscle of mastication (temporalis, and masseter
turns eye out
taste on the anterior 2/3 tongue
screen: test motor function: raise eyebrows, frown, show teeth, smile, close eyes, puff out cheeks
findings: paralysis, ipsilateral fascial muscles, inability to close eye, droop in corner of mouth, difficulty with speech articulation
bells palsy, CNS facial paralysis, stroke
vestibular occular reflex balance, hearing accuity
screen: vestibular function: test balance, eye head coordination (vor gaize stability)
cochlear function auditory accuity, use tuning fork on top of head, on mastoid bone.
Findings vestibular: vertigo, disequilibrium, nystagmus.
findings coclear: deafness, impaired hearing, tenitis
taste posterior 1/3 of tongue
gag reflex, pharynx control, soft palate rising with "ah" sound
screen: examine fro difficulty swallowing, observe motion of soft palate (elevation remains midline) and when pt says "ahh"
Finding: paralysis-palate fails to elevate, asymmetrical elevation, unilateral paralysis.
brain stem or hypothalamus dysfunction
gag reflex, pharynx control, soft palate rising with "ah" sound
traps muscle: elevate shoulders, SCM muscle: turn head to side
Screen: examine bulk of muscle, strength-shoulder shrug against resistance, turn head to each side against resistance
finding: atrophy, fasciculation, weakness (PNI); inability to shrug ipsilaterally;(ell)shoulder;shoulder droops. Inability to turn head to opposite side
SCI gullian barr syndrome
PNF techniques for facilitation
"close your hand, turn, pull arm across face"
open your hand, turn and push your arm down and out
open hand, turn, lft your arm up and out
close hand, turn, pull arm down across body
bring foot up, turn, and pull leg up and across your body
push foot down, turn, push leg down and out
lift foot up, turn and lift leg up and out
push foot down, turn, and pull leg down and in.
UMN VS. LMN lesions
Cortex, brainstem, corticospinal tracts, spinal cord
SC: anterior horn cell, spinal roots, peripheral nerves
CN: cranial nerves
stroke, TBI, SCI
Polio, guillan-Barre, PNI, peripheral neuropathy, radiculopathy
hypertonia, velocity dependent
decreased or absent, hypotonia, flaccid
flexor or extensor muscle spasms
with denervation: fasciculations
corticospinal lesions:contralateral if above decussation in medulla,
Spinal cord lesions: BL loss below level of lesion
Limited distribution: segmental or focal pattern, root innervated pattern.
impaired or absent: dyssentric patterns, obligatory synergies
weak or absent if nerve interrupted
Neuro muscle tone abnormalities
Decorticate rigidity: always an UMN lesion, sustained flexor posturing in the UE, sustained extensor posturing in the LE, Diencephalon lesion, sign of severe impairment
Decerebrate: always an UMNL, sustained ext posturing in the UE & LE, Brainstem lesion, sign of severe impairment
Rigidity: Always an UMNL, resistance to passive stretch in agonist & antagonist, Basal ganglia lesion
Cogwheel rigidity: ratchet-like response to quick passive movement; catches/releases/catches.
Leadpipe rigidity: constant rigidity
Flaccidity: LMNL, Cerebellar lesion, following spinal or cerebral shock, resolves or changes into spasticity.
0: No increased tone.
1 or 1+: slight increase in tone.
2: moderate increase in tone.
3: PROM is difficult.
4: affected joints are non-moveable (ankylosed)
Deep tendon reflexes commonly tested
Musculoskeletal ligaments, muscles, bones.
Ligaments: primarily type one collagen types and very strong in scars, generally hypovascular contain mechanoreceptors which contribute to proprioception, free nerve endings which contribute to pain perception. There are varying intrinsic differences within ligaments leading to varying approaches for rehab: extra-articular ligaments heal in an organized and predictable manner while intraarticular ligaments do not heal spontaneously or in a predictable manner.
Ligament sprains: 1-3 degree a few lig fibers - all are torn, caused by excessive load or stretch. pain with stretching (1 & 2), decreased ROM,
Muscle: Primarily made of loose, irregular connective tissue which makes the tissue more pliable and extensible, high vascularization and water content lead to faster healing times, easiest tissue to mobilize following trauma or period of immobilization.
Strain: muscle fibers torn caused by excessive load or stretch to muscle. Weakness, muscle spasms, swelling, disability, pain with isometric contraction, stretches,
Bone: composed of two basic layers: strong, intense outer layer- contributes to its strength, softer, mesh inner layer- stores marrow, covered with periosteum- provides blood to the bone, constantly remodeling- wolf’s law ( bone remodels based upon needs placed upon it)
A.) complete: the bone is fx all the way through. Will require immobilization, may require ORIF through surgical intervention using screws, pins, plates to secure bone ends
B.) Incomplete: disrupted integrity of bone. fragments are still somewhat connected. will require immobilization which depends on where it is and WB/NWB status
C.) Stress fx: fine hairline fx occurring w/ little to no soft tissue damage. best seen on x ray 3-4 weeks after incident
D) Open fx: bone protrudes out of skin. Requires open reduction, possibly internal fixation.
E) Greenstick fx: bone is bent and partially fx. typically happens to children because their bones are more flexible.
Musculoskeletal Kinesiology and body mechanics
Concave- convex rule: If the moving surface is convex, the glide will be in the opposite direction the bone moves. If the moving surface is concave, the glide will be in the same direction as the bone.
normal end feels:
Soft: soft tissue approximation
Firm: capsular and ligamentous stretching
Hard: bone meets
Abnormal end feels:
Boggy: edema, joint swelling
Firm w/ decreased elasticity: fibrosis of soft tissue
Rubbery: muscle spasm
Empty: loose, then very hard, associated with pt muscle guarding to avoid pain
Hypermobility: end feel later than opposite joint
Joint Close-pack position loose-pack
Facet (spine) Extension Midway between flex & extension
Temporomandibular Clenched teeth Mouth slightly open
GHJ Abd & ER 55-70° Horiz Add, rotated so forearm is in transverse plane
Acromioclavicular Arm abducted to 90° Arm resting by side, shoulder girdle in physiological position.
Ulnohumeral Extension 70° elbow flex, 10° supination
Radiohumeral Elbow flex 90° forearm sup 5° Full ext & supination
Prox radioulnar 5° supination 70° elbow flex 35° supination
Dis radioulnar 5° supination 10° supination
Radiocarpal Ext with radial deviation between flex- ext (straight line can pass through 3rd metacarpal & radius) c slight ulnar deviation
Hip Full ext, IR & abd 30° flex, 30° abduction, & slight ER
Knee Full ext, & ER of the tibia 25° flexion
Talocrural Max DF 10° PF, midway between inv & ev.
Common muscle substitutions:
scapular stabilizers to initiate shoulder mvmt when shoulder abd are weak
lat trunk muscles or tensor fascia latae when hip abd are weak
musculoskeletal joint mobilizations
joint mobilization indications: pain, hypomobility, muscle spasm and guarding, functional ROM limitation
Joint mobilization contra: hypermobility, pregnancy, malignancy, unhealed fx, bone disease, effusion, inflammation, blood thinners
grade 1: Small amp oscillation at beginning of range.
grade 2: Large amp pushing into tissue resistance just short of joint caps.
grade 3: Large amp stretches joint caps
grade 4: Small amp high velocity manipulation past end of passive range
Special tests for musculoskeletal conditions
GHJ Anterior instability apprehension test: assessment of anticipated pain when subject maintained 90 degrees Abd and ER of shoulder.
Posterior and inferior instability Jerk test: sudden jerk applied to shoulder in 90° flexion and IR (humeral head subluxes off the back of the glenoid) Sulcus sign: an indentation occurs inferior to the acromion as distal distraction is applied to the humerus.
Subacromial impingement Hawkins- kennedy: passive 90° flex and IR reproduce pain Neer’s: Passive IR and full abd reproduce pain Empty can: shoulder placed at 90° abd 30°horiz add, pain c resistance
Rotator cuff pathology Drop arm: unable to slowly lower arm passively abducted to 120° Lag signs: pt unable to maintain IR/ ER
ACJ H add: localized pain occurring during H add p/arom. SLAP active compression: painful pop oc click in 90° flex, 10-15° add and full IR when downward force is applied Biceps load 2: apprehension when asked to flex biceps against resistance at 120° abd.
Thoracic outlet syndrome Adson’s: radial pulse diminish when arm is extended and ER, pt head rotated toward arm. *Roos: radial pulse diminishes when arm placed in 90° abd, slight H add, elbow flex to 90°, open and close fist for 3 mins.
Elbow Ligament instability Varus/valgus stress: laxity noticed as varus and valgus stress applied to elbow in 20-0° flex Biceps rupture: Distal bunching of muscle noted and complete loss of function. *
Neuro dys Flex: pain at the medial epicondyle of elbow, numbness and tingling in ulnar nerve distribution. Reproduced when pt hold c max elbow flex and wrist ext 1 min. Indicates cubital tunnel syndrome.
Wrist & hand De Quervain’s tenosynovitis (tendonitis of abductor pollicis longus or extensor pollicis brevis) eichoff’s: pain reproduced when thumb is flexed across palm while moving into ulnar deviation. Finkelstein: pain reproduced when wrist and thumb are pulled into ulnar deviation with distraction force.
Neuro dys Phalen’s (wrist flexion): tingling and paresthesia reproduced during max wrist flex and hold together for 1 min, indicates carpal tunnel compression of medial nerve. Tinel sign: tingling and paresthesia are reproduced when tapping over carpal tunnel area compressing medial nerve. 2-pt discrimination: asses ability to detect 2 pts of contact at once on palm.
Hip DJD Scour/grind: P! when compressive force is applied to femur, hip 90° flex, knee max √
Dys, mob restriction Patrick (faber): involved leg is unable to assume relaxed posture, P! symptoms c hip √, abd, ER, foot placed proximal to knee in supine
Muscle length, strength involvement Thomas test: supine slingle leg hip and knee max √ , if opp limb flexes, indicates tightness of psoas major. Ober: Passive hip extension and lowering from abd, sidelying, tightness of tensor facia lata and or iliotibial band. Ely’s : tightness of the rectus femoris when hip of tested limb lifts off testing surface with knee flexion, tested in prone. Trendelenburg sign: observe pelvis of stance leg positive if ipsilateral hip drops when limb support is removed. Indicative of weak glut med or unstable hip
Knee 1-plain anterior instability Lachman: + excessive anterior translation of the tibia compared to the uninvolved limb and lack of firm end feel. Anterior drawer : + excessive anterior translation of the tibia compared to the uninvolved limb.
1-plain posterior instability Posterior drawer: + excessive posterior translation of the tibia compared to the uninvolved limb. Posterior sag: tibia sags posteriorly( normally extends 1 cm anteriorly beyond femoral condyle) when positioned supine, hip √ 45° knee √ 90°
1-plain medial-lateral instability Varus stress test: + excessive lateral mvmt or pain at the lateral knee Valgus stress+ excessive medial mvmt or pain at the knee (both tests performed at 0° and 30°√, + at 0° √ indicates major disruption of the knee and one or more rotary tests +.
Meniscus tear McMurray: + reproduction of click and or pain in the knee joint with rotary force applied.
Musculoskeletal conditions and interventions
Anklyosing Spondylitis: progressive inflammatory disorder that initially affects the axial skeleton, occurs before 40, affects thoracic and lumbar regions, BL SIJ, restricted P/AROM, flexed posture throughout entire spine.
Interventions: flexibility ex to maintain trunk motions and improve joint motions, especially ext. Implement aerobic such as aquatics for improved activity endurance. Include relaxation techniques such as breathing strategies for improved respiratory function
Psoriatic Arthritis: chronic erosive inflammatory disorder that typically occurs in the axial skeleton and digits.
Intervention: joint protection, aerobic activities for reconditioning
Rheumatoid arthritis: chronic systemic autoimmune disorder characterized by periods of acute exacerbation and remission. weight loss, fever, extreme fatigue.
Interventions: joint protection strategies, aerobic conditioning, maintain joint mechanics and connective tissue function
Osteomalacia: decalcification of bones as a result of vit D deficiency, severe pain, fx, weakness, deformities.
Interventions: bone protections strat, areobic conditioning, improve joint mechanics
Osteochondritis dissecans:separation of articular cartilage from underlying bone. Usually involving medial femoral condyle near the intercondylar notch, sometimes occurs on the femoral head or the humeral capitellum.
Interventions stretches, bone protection strats, aerobic conditioning, strengthening, power and endurance ex.
Tendinitis: inflammation of tendon caused by microtrauma, direct blow, overuse, excessive tensile force.
Interventions: manual, stretches, endurance conditioning, pt ed.
Bursitis: inflammation of the bursa secondary to overuse, gout, or trauma, or infection. Characterized by pain with rest, and decreased P/AROM due to pain, not in capsular pattern.
Interventions: stretches, manual therapy, endurance training, modalities, pt ed.
Myositis Ossificans: painful condition of abnormal calcification within muscle belly caused by direct trauma. most commonly located in the biceps, brachialis, and quads.
AVOID AGRESSIVE STRETCHING. gentle stretches, manual therapy, endurance conditioning
GHJ dislocation: most common anterior, caused by abduction and forceful ER. Posterior is caused by H Add, and IR. s/p avoid painful positions which may include: GHJ flex 90 deg, H Abd 90+, ER 80.
Interventions: restore normal GHJ motions, strength, endurance and stability.
patellofemoral conditions: abnormal malalignment of the patella. causes pain that is made worse with inactivity.
interventions: McConnel taping, Patellar mobilizations to lessen the abnormality. Correction of muscular imbalances.
Osgood-schlatter: jumper's knee, Made worse with activity mechanical dysfunction resulting in traction apophysitis of the tibial tubercle at the patellar tendon insertion. Irregularities of the epiphyseal line.
Interventions: modify activities to prevent excessive stress to irritated site.
Anterior compartment syndrome: Increased compartmental pressure resulting in local ischemic condition. caused by trauma, fx, overdose, muscle hypertrophy. characterized by deep achey feeling, swelling, parasthesia, severe pain,
Acute ACS is considered a medical emergency and requires immediate surgical intervention with fasciotomy to prevent tissue death and permanent disability.
ION concentration changes
hyperkalemia: increased potassium, widened PR interval, QRS wave, and tall T waves, tachycardia (potentially leading to bradycardia, potentially leading to cardiac arrest)
Hypokalemia: ECG changes (flattened T wave, prolonged PR and QT intervals, hypotension, arrhythmias may progress to V-fib .
Hypercalcemia: hypertension, signs of heart block, cardiac arrest
hypocalcemia: arrthmias, hypotension
hypernatremia: increased sodium, hypertension, tachycardia, pitting edema, excessive weight gain
hyponatremia: hypotension, tachycardia
cardiovascular dx tests
chest x-ray: lung condition, impact on lung from other conditions, blood vessels, fx, other objects
ECG: records electrical activity, Exercise tolerance test
consider: monitored in room via radio transmission, continuous monitoring during intervention, prvide ex guidlines following cardiac procedure
myocardial perfusion imaging: ischemic areas of the heart,
considerations: can visualize areas of old infarct
cardiac catheterization, (coronary angiogram): x-ray images capture to evaluate BP in heart and O2 saturations, Stint
considerations: invasive, dye in arteries, requires IV, 2-3 hrs
clubbing: associated with chronic O2 deficiency and CHF
pale, shiny, dry, loss hair: PVD (arterial insufficency)
abnormal pigmentation, ulceration, dermatitis, gangrene: PVD
heart anatomy pg142
Right atrium: receives blood from systemic circulation from superior and inferior vena cava
SA-node: near superior vena cava; pacemaker of the heart
AV-node: node floor of Right atrium, receives signal from SA-node/ bundle of HIS, to depolarize and contract ventricles
Right ventricle: receives blood from RA which pumps blood through pulmonary artery to lungs for oxygenation
Left Atrium: receives oxygenated blood from lungs and 4 pulmonary veins
Left ventricle: walls are thicker and stronger than the RV and form most of the left side and apex of the heart.
receives blood from the LA and pumps blood via the aorta throughout the entire circulatory system.
Atrioventricular valves: prevent backflow of the blood into the atria during ventricular systole. close when ventricular walls contract.
right heart valve tricuspid, left heart valve,(bicuspid, mitral)
semilunar valves: prevent backflow of blood from the aorta and pulmonary arteries into the ventricles diastole
pulmonary valve prevent right backflow.
aortic valve prevents left backflow
Arteries, veins and capillaries
Arteries: transport oxygenated blood from the heart, decrease in size and become arterioles and end as capillaries. have contractile abilities, arterial walls are thicker in order to tolerate high BP. Influenced by elasticity and elasibility of vessle walls and peripheral resistance, amount of blood in body change in diameter when triggered by sympathetic activity of the ANS, vasoconstriction or vasodilation
Veins: transport dark unoxygenated blood from peripheral tissues back to the heart. larger capacity and thinner, weaker walls than arteries, greater in number, one way valve to prevent backflow of blood because they do not have contractile abilities. rely on movement of muscle to squeeze blood back to the heart. Venous reflux occurs when the valves dont function properly caused by enlarged or weakened veins. deep veins accompany arteries while superfical's do not. increased blood return with inspiration, compliancy of right heart.
capillaries: minute blood vessels that connect the ends of arteries with the beginning of veins, functions for exchange of nutrients and fluids between blood and tissues. capillary walls are thin and permeable
Left ventricular failure
S&S pulmonary congestion:dyspnea, dry cough, orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, pulmonary rales, wheezin.
S&S low cardiac output: hypotension, tachycardia, lightheaded/ dizziness, cerebral hypoxia(irritability, restlessness, confusion, impaired memory, sleep disturbances), fatigue, weakness, poor exercise tolerance, enlarged heart on x-ray, S3 sound, possibly S4. murmurs of mitral or tricuspid regurgitation.
Right ventricular failure
S&S pulmonary congestion:dependent edema, weight gain, ascites, liver enlargement
S&S low cardiac output: anorexia, nausea, bloating, cyanosis in the nail beds, RUQ pain, jugular vein distension, R-sided S3 heart sounds, murmurs of pulmonary or tricuspid insufficiency.
Tx considerations for cardiac meds
Ace Inhibitors: watch for potential dizziness or orthostatic hypotension, NSAID's can reduce or negate the effects of the meds. monitor pt closely for elevated BP
Ca+ channel blocker: use PRE scale for monitoring exertion levels. may reduce blood flow to heart muscle and create ischemic response. monitor for orthostatic hypotension.
Alpha blockers: monitor for signs of hypotension, and reflex tachycardia; where heart rate increase to compensate for hypotension
Beta blockers: Use PRE scale, watch for bradycardia and OH, can worsen asthma symptoms.
Diuretics: can cause fluid and electrolyte imbalances; observe pt for muscle weakness or spasms, headache, and poor coordination. Monitor for bradycardia and OH.
Nitrates: observe for dizziness, tachycardia, and OH. Pt may c/o headache.
etiology: primary lymphedema: congenital; Secondary lymphedema: occurs as a result of injury to lymphatic vessels or parasitic infection.
Progressive over time: w/o tx, may develop into fibrosis, chronic infection, or loss of limb function
Symptoms: heaviness, tightness, or pain, swelling, and persistent edema, loss of ROM and function in an arm or leg
Skin changes: hardening and/or discoloration of skin
Dx: history, visual inspection and palpation, girth measurements.
tests may include: MRI & CT scans; doppler ultrasound, radionuclide imaging of the lymphatic system.
Staging:0-latent, 1-spontaneously reversible, 2-spontaneously irreversible, 3- lymphostatic elephantiasis
Tx: complete decongestive therapy, manual lymph drainage, short stretch compression bandages, exercises, functional training, skin care and lymphedema education
pulmonary breathing muscles
Diaphragm (Phrenic nerve, C3-5)
Diaphragm; SCM, scalenes- elevate 2 upper ribs; levator costarum, scalenes- elevate remaining ribs; pec major, serratus posterior superior(SCM: CN XI, 2, 3, Scalene: lower cervical root)
muscles of resting and deep inspiration, trapezius, pectorals, serratus, levator scapula (traps: CNX1, pect: medial pectoral C8, T1, serratus: long thoracic C5-7, levator: C3-4, dorsal scapular)
same as resting inspiration, internal intercostals( intercostal nerve T2-6
muscles of forced inspiration+ abs, quadratus lumborum, lower iliocostalis, serratus posterior inferior. (abs: 7-12 intercostal nerves, iliohypogastric, ilioguinal nerve, QL: 12th thoracic &1st lumbar nerves)
when having difficulty breathing, SCI pts should lay day to help decrease the effects of gravity upon the diaphragm and improve the inspiratory capacity of the lungs.
pulmonary percussion positions
shaking chills, fever, chest pain if pleuritic involved, productive or purulent, blood streaked, rusty sputum. cackles, tachypnea, increased white blood cell count, hypoxemia, hypocapnea leading to hypercapnea with increasing severity. CXR confirmation of infiltrate.
recent upper respiratory infection, fever, chills, dry cough, headaches, cackles, hypoxemia and hypercapnea, normal wbc count, CXR confirmation of interstitial infiltrate.
aspiration event, dry cough leading productive, dyspnea, tachypnea, cyanosis, tachycardia, wheezes and cackles, hypoxemia hypercapnea, chest pain, fevre, wbc count shows varying degrees of leykocytosis, CXR initially shows pneumonitis. chronic aspiration shows necrotizing pneumonia with cavitation .
TB: airborne, incubation period: 2-10 weeks. to become noninfectious: 2 weeks on antituberculin drugs