Joseph Speisman, Richard Lazarus, Arnold Markoff, Les Davison
Participants’ emotional reactions will differ in the different stimulus
Emotional reactions will not differ
Trauma soundtrack increased stress compared to control. Denial and Intellectualization less stress than control//lower heart rate
Emotional trauma may be inflicted upon the participants Lots of deception Very little informed consent During a time when many unethical studies were conducted
The results suggest that cognitive appraisal can be modified to effect emotional stress Trauma track raised stress levels The ego track and the intellectualization track that focused on WHY this ritual was happening and what it did lowered the stress SUPPORTS HYPOTHESIS
To investigate how manipulating ones cognitive appraisal could affect emotional experiences, through measuring the stress levels
Independent Variable: Soundtrack used
Dependent Variable: Emotional Response
Individuals interpretation affect emotional stress rather than the actual event
Social theory or school of thought
Based on Lazurus social appraisal theory A theory of emotion which implicates people’s personal interpretations of an event in determining their emotional reaction Changing the music in this study changes how the participants perceive the event which alters their emotional response
Analysis of Study
a. Potential Confounding Variables : prior degree of comfort towards graphic images, demand characteristics of questionnaire b. Extraneous Variables :attention spent on film c. Controls : # participants in each stimulus, video, soundtrack, method of conducting d. Blind Technique: Single (participants) e. Cultural Influences : non or fact all participants where American f. Influence of Gender: Both genders in study, males might have stronger connection
Research and Sampling Method
Research Method: Experimental
Sampling Method- Random, as college students formed one group and airlines execs formed another
Procedure a. Participants split into 4 groups (students and execs) i. Control (No soundtrack) ii. Trauma Condition (Emphasis on pain) iii. Denial Condition (Happy Music) iv. Intellectualization Condition (Narration of Surgery) b. After each group watched a video, they were given a psychological/ self-report questionnaire.
Studies that Support or challenge
Many studies conducted by Lazurus (Lazurus et al 1970, Lazurus and Launier 1978) show that cognitive appraisal is made up of learning, memory, perception, and thought. These studies investigated other ways to change ones perception.
Strengths and Limitations
Very controlled – reduces the amount/impact of confounding variables
Weak ecological validity
Study is replicable
Results can only apply to males
Study is unethical
Help Us Go Positive!
We offset our carbon usage with Ecologi. Click the link below to help us!