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MGB200 Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by

Cheat sheet

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.

Lecture 1

Expert thinking: • Solving new problems for which there are no routine solutions.
Complex commun­ica­tion: • Persua­ding, explai­ning, and in other ways conveying your viewpoint.
Motiva­tion: Internal forces that affect a person’s voluntary choice of behaviour: – direction – intensity – persis­tence
Ability: Natural aptitudes and learned capabi­lities required to succes­sfully complete a task • Compet­encies , personal charac­ter­istics that lead to superior perfor­mance • Person  job matching – selecting – developing – redesi­gning
Role: Beliefs about what behaviour is required to achieve the desired results: – unders­tanding what tasks to perform – unders­tanding relative importance of tasks – unders­tanding preferred behaviours to accomplish tasks
Situat­ional Factors: Enviro­nmental conditions beyond the indivi­dual’s shortterm control that constrain or facilitate behaviour – time – people – budget – work facilities

Lecture 2

Self-c­oncept charac­ter­istics and processes • Three charac­ter­istics of self-c­oncept: • comple­xity: people have multiple self-views • consis­tency: similar person­ality, values and attributes across multiple selves • clarity: clearly and confid­ently defined, internally consistent and stable across time
Self–e­nha­ncement – drive to promote or perceive a positive self-view – better personal adjustment and mental and physical health – inflates personal causation and probab­ility of success, blames the situation for mistakes
Self-v­eri­fic­ation: – motivation to confirm and maintain our self-c­oncept – Stabilises our self-c­oncept – selective attention, acceptance and memory of inform­ation consistent with our self-c­oncept
Self-c­oncept: self-e­val­uation • Self-e­steem: extent to which people like, respect & are satisfied with themse­lves: Self-e­ffi­cacy: • belief in one’s ability, motiva­tion, role percep­tions and situation to complete a task succes­sfully • task-s­pecific and general self-e­fficacy
Principal sources of inform­ation for building self-e­fficacy are: – Enactive mastery: personal experience – Vicarious experi­ences: other peoples’ experience – Verbal persua­sion: influence of others­/fi­ltering – Physio­logical states: e.g. health, alertness, coordi­nation
Guided Workplace Learning in 4 Phases
Modelling: Expert performs the task, Coaching: Learners perform task, Scaffo­lding: Expert gives support, Fading: Gradual removal of support
Stereo­typing proccess: 1. catego­ris­ation: Assume that all indivi­duals in category have certain traits, 2. homoge­nis­ation: Perceive this person as belonging to that category, 3. differ­ent­iation process: Attribute traits of category to person
1. Implement supportive workforce services that are discre­tio­nary— “Don't just do the things you are required to do.” 2. Be fair and equitable in the making, monitoring and enforc­ement of all management practices. 3. Set achievable goals and reward propor­tio­nately. 4. Offer indivi­dua­lized benefi­ts—­“Learn and provide the type of support your workers and workforce needs.”
5. Support superv­isors so they will foster POS in their subord­inates. 6. Train subord­inates to be suppor­tive. 7. Promote strong social networks. 8. Begin organi­zat­ional support prior to the start of employment
Psycho­logical contract breach: not follow promise
violation: breach of contract/ verbal
Cognitive = evaluation My supervisor is unfair, Affective = feeling I dislike my superv­isor!, Behavi­oural = action I’m looking for other work

Writing a case study

• Writing a case study response requires you to: – Relate theory to a practical situation by applying the ideas and knowledge discussed in MGB200 to the practical situation at hand in the case study. – Identify the problems – Select the major problems in the case – Suggest solutions to these major problems – Recommend the best evidence based solutions to be implem­ented

Motivation Theory

What is motiva­tion? Direction, Intensity, Persis­tence
Charac­ter­ist­ics­-ef­fective feedback: Specific, Relevant, timely, credible, suffic­iently frequent
Expectancy Theory: if you try you perform, if perform will be rewarded, when rewarded reward will be good
Equity theory: compare own outcomes and own inputs to other's outcomes and inputs
Self-D­ete­rmi­nation Theory: Compet­ence: being effective, Autonomy: have control of life, Relate­dness: being close affect­ionette with others

Motivating people

Pay for Perfor­mance:
Downsides: excessive: risk, compet­ition in firm ; not focusing on quility; cheating the system to increase perfor­mance.
Rewards effective when: linked towards perfor­mance, are relevant, ensure rewards are valued, consider cultural differ­ences
An engaging job is one that is challe­nging, meanin­gful, has variety, and enables the use of different skills, discre­tion, and the opport­unity to make important contri­but­ions.
Job design models: establish best way to do task, specia­lised tasks easy to master, establish best way and standa­rdise across everyone, workers trained developed supervised
Job dimens­ions: Skill variety, task identity, task signif­icance, autonomy, feedback from job
Job charac­ter­istics interv­ent­ions: Job rotation, Job enlarg­ement, Job enrich­ment, Autonomous work group
Empowe­rment: employees have: Selfde­ter­min­ation, meaning, Compet­ence, impact

Learning and develo­pment

Learning is a relatively permanent change in cognition resulting from experience and directly influe­ncing behaviour.
After learning something has changed
Learning occurs in, with and through experience
Occurs in variety of situations both informal and formal
Lifelong experience
How to drive career develo­pment:
Define your career aspira­tions. • Identify your goals and create your career plan. • Share your plan with your manager. • Find out about training assist­ance. • Provide regular updates.
Social Cognitive Theory: Observing and imitating other people behaviour (vicarious learning) • Antici­pating conseq­uences of our own behaviour • Beliefs, self-p­erc­eption and expect­ations
Organi­zat­ional learning is the process of improving actions through better knowledge and unders­tanding
Organi­sat­ional actions promoting organi­sat­ional learning: Recogn­ising mistakes as a part of learning, Creating enviro­nment for learning and relear­ning, Rewarding people for sharing, Encour­aging employees for seeking and suggesting improv­ements


Path-goals leader­ship: Originated from expectancy theory of motivation – Paths = employee expect­ancies– Goals=­emp­loyee perfor­mance
good job=better rewards
Path–goal leadership styles: Directive- task based, Suppor­tive- Ψ support , Partic­ipa­tive: is involved , Achiev­eme­nt-­ori­ented -encourg peak perfor­mance, through goal setting
Hersey & Blanchard Situat­ional Model:
•Considers Leader behaviours (Task and Relati­ons­hip­)–A­ssumes leaders can change their behavi­our­s•C­ons­iders Followers as the Situat­ion­–Fo­llower task maturity (ability and experi­enc­e)–­Fol­lower psycho­logical maturi­ty(­wil­lin­gness to take respon­sib­ili­ty)­•As­sum­ptions –Leaders can and should change their style to fit their followers’ degree of readin­ess­(wi­lli­ngness and abilit­y)–­The­refore, it is possible to train leaders to better fit their style to their followers > • Situat­ional Leadership Theory: the more 'ready' the followers the less the need for leader support and superv­ision.
Transf­orm­ational Leadership Elements: Create a strategic vision, Commun­icate the vision, Model the vision, Build commitment to the vision
Employee contin­gen­cies: skills and experi­ence, locus of control
Leader effect­ive­ness: Employee motiva­tion, employee satisf­action, leader acceptance
Enviro­nmental contin­gen­cies: task structure, team dynamics

Organi­sat­ional Culture

Values – ‘How we do things here’ – Organi­sat­ional norms and rules
Basic assump­tions – Least apparent – Taken for granted values and believes
The cultural web: Symbols, stories, Rituals and routines, organi­sat­ional structure, Control systems, power structure
Organi­sat­ional culture types: Clan-e­xtended family, mentoring; Adhocracy: dynamic, entrep­ren­eurial; Hyerachy: structure, control; Market: values compet­ition, results orientated
Strong cultures exist when:  most employees unders­tan­d/e­mbrace the dominant values values and assump­tions are instit­uti­ona­lised through well-e­sta­blished artefacts culture is long-l­ast­ing­—often traced back to founder
Problems with Strong Cultures 1. Culture content might be misaligned with the organi­sat­ion’s enviro­nment.
Strategies for changing and streng­thening organi­sat­ional culture: Actions of founders and leaders, Aligning artefacts: transfer culture eg. by stories, Attrac­ting, selecting, social­ising for cultural ‘fit’, Introd­ucing cultur­all­y-c­ons­istent rewards and recogn­ition:

Organi­sat­ional Change

Lewin’s force field analysis model: Driving forces: – push organi­sations towards change – external forces or leader’s vision; Restra­ining forces: – resistance to change – employee behaviours that block the change process;
Prosci’s ADKAR Model: Awareness of need to change, desire to support change, knowledge how to change, Ability to implement, reinfo­rcement to sustain change
Why employees resist change: Fear of the unknown, Direct costs, Negative valence of change, Breaking routines, Incong­ruent team dynamics, Incong­ruent organi­sat­ional systems
Creating line of sight: 1. Commun­icate the change, 2. Align leaders and define roles, 3. Commit to Proof Points, 4. Measuring Success
Reducing the restra­ining forces: Commun­ica­tion, learning, involv­ement, Stress manage­ment, negoti­ation, Coercion

Flexible Work Arrang­ements & Employee Wellbeing

Formal policies and informal practices
Types of flexible work arrang­ements: Offsite Working, Carer’s Arrang­ements, Flexi-work Schedules, Altern­ative Work Arrang­ements
Work-life Balance: Spill-over of work to home & home to work, Work-life conflict: time devoted, strain from work and specific behaviours can affect a relati­onship and work
Perceived organi­zat­ional support: employees feel valued, Work-life culture: employees thoughts on how much they're valued, Organi­sat­ional culture influences POS.
Demons­trating Organi­sation Support • POS is promoted through effective leader­ship, favorable HR practices, desirable job conditions and fair treatment.
Senior Manager – Leader­ship: Role modelling, Explicit statements of support, Consistent messaging

Profes­sional ethics

Types of Right v. Right Dilemmas Truth v. Loyalty: personal honest or integrity vs respon­sib­ility and keeping one’s promises Individual v. Community: the interests of the individual vs those of the individual as part of a larger entity­/co­mmunity Short-Term v. Long-Term: the real and important concerns of the present pitted against foresight and investment in the future Justice v. Mercy: fairness and equal applic­ation of the rules vs empathy and compassion
Resolving Right vs Right Dilemmas Three rule:1. End-based thinki­ng–­Focused on conseq­uen­ces–The greatest good for the greatest number 2. Rule-based thinking – Identify (unive­rsal) rules that if obeyed would make the world the kind of place we all would want to live in (Kant) 3. Care-based thinking – Golden rule – do unto others as you would want them to do unto you – Take the other person’s perspe­ctive
Steps for Making Ethical Decisions 1. Identify the ethical issue or problem. 2. List the facts that have the most bearing on the decision. 3. Identify anyone who might be affected by your decision and how. 4. Explain what each affected person would want you to do about the issue. 5. List two to three altern­ative actions and identify the best and worst case scenario for each altern­ative, anyone who would be harmed by this choice (and how), any values that would be compro­mised by selecting this altern­ative, and any automatic reasons why this altern­ative should not be selected (legal issues, rules, etc.). 6. Determine a course of action.