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AP bio review Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by

ap bio review for the 2020 exam

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.

Chemistry of Life

Nonpolar covalent bonds: electrons shared equally between atoms
pH scale: between 0 and 14,
Polar covalent bonds: one atom has greater electr­one­gat­ivity unequal sharing of electrons
acids: excess of H+ ions pH>7
Ionic bonds: chemical bonds from attration between charged ions
Bases: excess of OH- pH>7
Hydrogen bonds: weak bonds berwwen partial + charged hydrogen atom and electr­one­gatice oxygen­/ni­trogen of another, cause Cohesi­on(­sti­cking of like molecu­les), adhesi­on(­sti­cking of unlike molecu­les), and transp­ira­tio­n(m­ovement of water molecules in plants)
Specific heat: amount of heat required to raise or lower temp by 1 degree C


Glycol­isis: breakdown two pyruva­te(­glu­cuse) into 2 pyruvate + 2 h20, 2 ATP, 2 NADH + 2H+
Pyruvate Oxidiz­ation: pyruvate turns into CO2, NADH, Acetyl CoA
Citric Acid/Krebs cycle: starts w/ acetyl CoA turns into 2CO2, 3NADH, 1ATP, 1FADH
ETC: pumping of protons to create a gradient which powers chemio­smosis
Chemio­smosis: ATP synthesis powered by ETC
Total yield: 30-32 ATP(2 from glycol­isis, 2 from citric acid, 26-28 from oxidative phosph­ory­lation)
C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 --> 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + ATP
fermen­tation: expansion of glycolis where ATP is produced by substrate level phosph­ory­lation, anerobic


Monosa­cch­aride: monomer of carbs
Lipids­:fu­nction is energy­/pr­ote­ction
Proteins: polymers made of amino acid monomers, linked by peptide bonds
Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA, monomers are nucleo­tides
polysa­cch­arides: polymers of carbs
steroids: four rings fused together
Primary structure: amino acid sequence
Made of nitrog­enous base, 5 carbon sugar and a phosphate group
Energy­-st­oring polysa­cca­rides: starch, glycogen
Second­ary­:hy­drogen bonding results in alpha helix or beta pleated sheet
Structural polysa­cch­arides: cellulose, chitin
tertia­ry:­complex shapes from bonding between R groups
QUater­nar­y" two or more polype­ptide chains into one large protein

The Cell

Ribosomes: protein factories
Isotonic solution: same amount of solute
Endopl­asmic Reticulum: smooth­(sy­thesis of lipids, package to transport vesicles), meatab­olize carbs, detoxify, storage), Rough( sythesize proteins)
Hypert­onic: more solute
Golgi appara­tus­(re­ceives, sorts, ships)
hypotonic: less solute
Endosy­mbiont theory: mitoch­ondria and chloro­plast from prokar­yotic cells, have dna and double membrane
peroxi­somes: transfer hydrogen to oxygen, detoxify

Energy of Life

Catabolic: release of energy by breakdown of complex to simple
Anabolic: consume enrgy to make compli­cated from simple
Exergonic: energy released
Enderg­onic: requires energy