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Intro to Chem and Physics chp. 5 Cheat Sheet by

Polyatomic atoms

Ammonium
NH₄
1+
Acetate
C₂H₃O₂
1-
Chorate
ClO₃
1-
Hydroxide
OH
1-
Nitrate
NO₃
1-
Carbonate
CO₃
2-
Sulfate
SO₄
2-
Phosphate
PO₄
3-

Rules for Using Oxidation Numbers

1.
The sum of the oxidation numbers in a compound is always equal to 0
2.
Some elements have more than one ox number
3.
Write the symbol of the element with the positive ox number first

Elements with more than 1 ox number

Iron
Fe
2+,3+
Copper
Cu
1+,2+
Chromium
Cr
2+,3+
Tin
Sn
2+,4+
Lead
Pb
2+,4+
Silver
Ag
1+

'Ide' forms

Oxygen
Oxide
Nitrogen
Nitride
Sulfur
Sulfide
Bromine
Bromide
Iodine
Iodide
Chlorine
Chloride
Fluorine
Fluoride
Phosph­orous
Phosphide
 

Diatomic elemets

Nitrogen
N₂
Oxygen
O₂
Fluorine
F₂
Chlorine
Cl₂
Bromine
Br₂
Iodine
I₂
Hydrgen
H₂
 

Vocab

Compounds
2 or more elements chemically combined
Molecule
the smallest particle of a compound (or gaseous element) that still has the chemical properties of that substance
Octet rule
tendency for elements to be stable with 8 valence electrons
Exceptions to octet rule
Hydrogen (H), Helium (He), Lithium (Li), Beryllium (Be)
Ionic bond
transfer of electrons results in electr­oma­gnetic force
Covalent bond
atoms share electrons to become stable
Ionic bond elements
Metals(+) and Nonmetals (-)
Covalent bond elements
Nonmetals and Nonmetals and Hydrogen
Metallic bond
valence electrons are lost to a common electron cloud
Metallic bond elements
Metals and metals
Oxidation number
combining ability of an atom -the number of electrons gained, lost, or shared
Ionic ox number
charge on Ion
Covalent ox number
experi­men­tally determined
Polyatomic Ion
Group of covalently bonded atoms that act together like one charged particle

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