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What is a an industrial cluster?

a cluster
is a geogra­phi­cally proximate group of interc­onn­ected companies and associated instit­utions in a particular field, linked by common­alities and comple­men­tar­ities
Two important dimens­ions:
and geogra­phical proximity
However, proximity is not of value by itself; it is an enabling factor that increases the ease of
frequent, flexible and rich commun­ication
mobility of employees

Why do we care?

10 – 40% of the company market value from strategic alliances and networks
Internal compet­encies and resources limits develo­pment
Intern­ati­ona­lis­ation is challe­nging

Success factors

co-operate as close to the core activities as possible
invest in the cooper­ation
all partners must have valuable contri­butions
start small and develop the cooper­ation
open commun­ication
trust and personal relations

So why doesn’t everyone cooperate?


Why do they fail?

too complex too soon
lack of bilateral adaption
unbalanced cooper­ation
one partner feels exploited
lack of dynamics and develo­pment

What to consider when choosing a location?

Proximity benefits
Benefits of locating activities close to the resources that are important for the perfor­mance of the activities
labor Markets. Suppliers and partners
clients and capital
Cooper­ation benefits
Equal activities performed at the same location Economies of scale
Decreasing unit costs at large volume of learning curve effects - Decreasing unit costs for repeated perfor­mances
The entire activity set is performed in the same place
Reciprocal addiction - creates the need for coordi­nation of the activity.
Transa­ction costs - minimized by colocation

Clusters fit in with maritime management

Clusters is a important part of strategic management – part of a business strategic choice

How can politics affect this?

Author­ities affects attrac­tiv­eness:
directly through
customs and others barriers
indirectly through
compet­ition policy
transport infras­tru­cture

Industry dynamics

Industry dynamics is the sum of processes that take place between companies (and instit­utions)
compet­ition for market share and positions
relocation of capital between companies, industries and regions
mobility of employees
cooper­ation, coordi­nation and commun­ication through formal and informal channels
The stronger dynamics, the more upgraded the resource base of the economy and the higher produc­tivity

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