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The Principles of CLL Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by [deleted]

Principles of CLL

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.


The basic principles of CLL can be described in processes by which language learners acquire a foreign language. The processes can be considered as stages in language learning.

Stages in language counse­lor­-client relati­onship from counselor dependency to indepe­ndence

Stage 1

The client is completely dependent on the language counselor:

1. First, he expresses only to the counselor and in his mother tongue what he/she wishes to say to the group. Each group member overhears this english exchange, but is not involved in it.
2. The counselor then reflects these ideas back to the client in the foreign language in a warm, accepting tone, in simple language in phrases of five or siz words.
3. The client turns to the group and presents his ideas in the foreign language. He has the counse­lor’s aid if he mispro­nounces r hesitates on a word or phrase.
This is the client’s maximum security stage.

Stage 2

1. Same as above
2. The client turns and begins to speak the foreign language directly to the group
3. The counselor aids only as the client hesitates or turns for help. Therse small indepe­ndent steps are signs of positive confidence and hope.

Stage 3

1. The client speaks directly to the group in the foreign language. This resumes that the group has now acquired the ability to understand his simple phrases.
2. Same as (3) above.

Stage 4

1. The client is now speaking freely and complexly in the foreign language. Presumes group’s unders­tan­ding.
2. The counselor directly intervenes in gramma­tical error, mispro­nou­ciation or where aid in complex expression is needed. The client is suffic­iently secure to take correction

Stage 5

1. Same as IV
2. The counselor intervenes not only to offer correction but to add idioms and more elegant constr­uction
3. At this stage, the client can become counselor to group in stage I, II ,and III.


In learning a foreign language learners need psycho­logical requir­ements. In CLL the requir­ements for successful learning are collected under acronym SARD (Curran, 1976: 6), which can be explained as follows.
S stands for security. Feeling security is essential in learni­ng-­tea­ching process. Unless knower and learners feel secure, they will find it difficult to enter into a successful learni­ng-­tea­ching process.
A stand for attention and aggres­sion. Without attention language learners will not learn a language optimally. Inatte­ntion is considered natural in CLL. Loss of attention is an indication that language learners lack involv­ement in learning a foreign language. The knower has to consider this condition positi­vely; he/she has to provide variety in learning tasks in order to increase attention and promote learning.
R stands for retention and reflec­tion. Retention is the final process of absorbing what is studied into oneself and being able to retrieve and use it later with ease. The process of absorbing is then followed by the second R, reflec­tion. Language learners need to take a period of silence to reflect what has been learned.
D denotes discri­min­ation. Language learners need to identify the sounds they are hearing, the meanings of the words they have learned and the gramma­tical usage. With our conscious processes of discri­min­ation language learners may think they know what they have learned when in fact they still do not.