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Cheatography

Quality of Work Life (QWL) Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by [deleted]

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.

Introd­uction

Quality of Work Life (QWL) is the favora­bleness or unfavo­rab­leness of the job enviro­nment (Newstrom, Davis, 1993). Its purpose is to develop jobs and working conditions that are excellent for both the employees and the organi­zation. One of the ways of accomp­lishing QWL is through job design

Job Design Options

One of the ways of accomp­lishing QWL is through job design. Some of the options available for improving job design are:
Leave the job as is but employ only people who like the rigid enviro­nment or routine work. Some people do enjoy the security and task support of these kinds of jobs.
Leave the job as is, but pay the employees more.
Mechanize and automate the routine jobs.
And the area that OD loves—­red­esign the job.

Job Enlarg­ement and Job Enrichment

When redesi­gning jobs there are two spectrums to follow:
ob enlarg­ement -adds a more variety of tasks and duties to the job so that it is not as monoto­nous. This takes in the breadth of the job. That is, increase the number of different tasks that an employee performs. This can also be accomp­lished by job rotation.
job enrich­ment. Job enrich­ment, on the other hand, adds additional motiva­tors. It adds depth to the job—more control, respon­sib­ility, and discretion to how the job is performed. This gives higher order needs to the employee, as opposed to job enlarg­ement that simply gives more variety. The chart illust­rates the differ­ences (Cunni­ngham, Eberle, 1990):
 

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Methods to Improve Job Enrichment

There is a variety of methods for improving job enrich­ment:
Skill Variety: Perform different tasks that require different skill. This differs from job enlarg­ement that might require the employee to perform more tasks, but require the same set of skills.
Task Identity: Create or perform a complete piece of work. This gives a sense of completion and respon­sib­ility for the product.
Task Signif­icant: This is the amount of impact that the work has on other people as the employee perceives.
Autonomy: This gives employees discretion and control over job related decisions.
Feedback: Inform­ation that tells workers how well they are perfor­ming. It can come directly from the job (task feedback) or verbally form someone else.
(Hackman and Oldham, 1975):

Enrichment Benefits

The benefits of enriching jobs include:
Growth of the individual
Indivi­duals have better job satisf­action
Self-a­ctu­ali­zation of the individual
Better employee perfor­mance for the organi­zation
Organi­zation gets intrin­sically motivated employees
Less absent­eeism, turnover, and grievances for the organi­zation
Full use of human resources for society
Society gains more organi­zations that are effective