This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.
Quality of Work Life (QWL) is the favorableness or unfavorableness of the job environment (Newstrom, Davis, 1993). Its purpose is to develop jobs and working conditions that are excellent for both the employees and the organization. One of the ways of accomplishing QWL is through job design
Job Design Options
One of the ways of accomplishing QWL is through job design. Some of the options available for improving job design are:
Leave the job as is but employ only people who like the rigid environment or routine work. Some people do enjoy the security and task support of these kinds of jobs.
Leave the job as is, but pay the employees more.
Mechanize and automate the routine jobs.
And the area that OD loves—redesign the job.
Job Enlargement and Job Enrichment
When redesigning jobs there are two spectrums to follow:
ob enlargement -adds a more variety of tasks and duties to the job so that it is not as monotonous. This takes in the breadth of the job. That is, increase the number of different tasks that an employee performs. This can also be accomplished by job rotation.
job enrichment. Job enrichment, on the other hand, adds additional motivators. It adds depth to the job—more control, responsibility, and discretion to how the job is performed. This gives higher order needs to the employee, as opposed to job enlargement that simply gives more variety. The chart illustrates the differences (Cunningham, Eberle, 1990):
Methods to Improve Job Enrichment
There is a variety of methods for improving job enrichment:
Skill Variety: Perform different tasks that require different skill. This differs from job enlargement that might require the employee to perform more tasks, but require the same set of skills.
Task Identity: Create or perform a complete piece of work. This gives a sense of completion and responsibility for the product.
Task Significant: This is the amount of impact that the work has on other people as the employee perceives.
Autonomy: This gives employees discretion and control over job related decisions.
Feedback: Information that tells workers how well they are performing. It can come directly from the job (task feedback) or verbally form someone else.
(Hackman and Oldham, 1975):
The benefits of enriching jobs include:
Growth of the individual
Individuals have better job satisfaction
Self-actualization of the individual
Better employee performance for the organization
Organization gets intrinsically motivated employees
Less absenteeism, turnover, and grievances for the organization
Full use of human resources for society
Society gains more organizations that are effective