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Procedural Knowledge Creation Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by [deleted]

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.


Knowledge often comes to us via transc­ribed content or artifacts, which is derived from other's knowledge. These are facts, concepts, processes, proced­ures, and princi­ples (Clark & Chopeta, 2004). Thus, artifacts are used in the learning process for creating knowledge, while in turn, knowledge creates new artifacts.


There are five primary types of content (artifacts of knowle­dge): facts, concepts, processes, proced­ures, and principles (Clark, Mayer, 2007):
Facts Specific and unique data or instance.
Conc­epts A class of items, words, or ideas that are known by a common name, includes multiple specific examples, shares common features. There are two types of concepts: concrete and abstract.
Proc­esses A flow of events or activities that describe how things work rather than how to do things. There are normally two types: business processes that describe work flows and technical processes that describe how things work in equipment or nature. They can be thought of as the big picture, of how something works.
Proc­edu­res A series of step-b­y-step actions and decisions that result in the achiev­ement of a task. There are two types of actions: linear and branched.
Prin­cip­les Guidel­ines, rules, and parameters that govern. It includes not only what should be done, but also what should not be done. Principles allow one to make predic­tions and draw implic­ations. Given an effect, one can infer the cause of a phenomena. Principles are the basic building blocks of causal models or theore­tical models (theor­ies).

Procedural Knowledge

Procedural models focus on tasks that must be performed to reach a particular objective or goal. It is charac­terized as knowing how. Procedural knowledge is often difficult to verbalize and articulate (tacit knowledge) than declar­ative knowledge.

Procedural knowledge emphasizes hierar­chical or inform­ation processing approaches based upon produc­tions. A combin­ation of produc­tions create production systems.

Knowledge Creation Process

Theses artifacts (content) are in turn, used in the knowledge creation process to create two types of knowledge: declar­ative and proced­ural, which is shown in the detailed view


Produc­tions are the building blocks of procedural knowledge and are composed of a condition and an action or IF and THEN statement. For example, IF the light is red, THEN stop (Merri­enboer, 1997).

Production Systems

A production system is a set of produc­tions for cognitive proces­sing. It is charac­terized by the recogn­ize-act cycle in which one production leads to another produc­tion. For example:

 ­ ­ ­ IF the light is red, THEN stop
 ­ ­ ­ IF light turns green, THEN release brake
 ­ ­ ­ IF brake is released, THEN step on gas pedal

Thus, in a training enviro­nment, know­ledge is mainly composed of declar­ative knowle­dge, while skills are mainly composed of procedural knowle­dge. Attitudes are composed of genes and deeply rooted knowledge and skills.