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Principles of Muslim Faith Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by [deleted]

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.

Five Pillars of Din (Justice)

Faith: Shahada is a declar­ation of faith and trust that professes that there is only one God (Allah) and that Muhammad is God's messenger.
Prayer­:Salat (ṣalāh) is the Islamic prayer. Salat consists of five daily prayers according to the Sunna; the names are according to the prayer times: Fajr (dawn), Dhuhr (noon), ʿAṣr (after­noon), Maghrib (evening), and ʿIshāʾ (night).
Charit­y:Zakāt or alms-g­iving is the practice of charitable giving based on accumu­lated wealth.
Repent­enc­e:Sawm: (Fasting) Three types of fasting (Siyam) are recognized by the Quran: Ritual fasting, fasting as compen­sation for repentance (both from sura Al-Baq­ara), and ascetic fasting (from Al-Ahzab).
Hajj: Pilgrimage to Mecca The Hajj is a pilgrimage that occurs during the Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah to the holy city of Mecca. Every able-b­odied Muslim is obliged to make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their life.

Ismailis

Walaya­h:G­uar­dia­nship Love and devotion to God, the prophets, the Imamah and the duʻāt ("mi­ssi­ona­rie­s").
Tawhid: "­Oneness of God".
Salat:­Prayer Nizari Ismailis reason that it is up to the current imām to designate the style and form of prayer.
Zakāt:­Charity with the exception of the Druze, all Ismaili madh'hab have practices resembling that of Sunni and Twelver Muslims with the addition of the charac­ter­istic Shia khums.
Sawm:R­epe­ntence Nizari & Mustaali believe in both a metaph­orical and literal meaning of fasting.
Hajj: Visiting the imām or his repres­ent­ative and that this is the greatest and most spiritual of all pilgri­mages. The Mustaali maintain also the practice of going to Mecca. The Druze interpret this completely metaph­ori­cally as "­fleeing from devils and oppres­sor­s" and rarely go to Mecca.
Jihad or "­Str­ugg­le": "the Greater Strugg­le" and the "The Lesser Strugg­le".
A struggle against one's own soul; striving toward rightness, and sometimes as struggle in warfare.
 

Pillars of Shia Islam

Twelver Shia Islam has five Usul al-Din and ten Furu al-Din, the Shia Islamic beliefs and practices. The Twelver Shia Islam Usul al-Din, equivalent to a Shia Five Pillars, are all beliefs considered founda­tional to Islam, and thus classified a bit differ­ently from those listed above.

Five Pillars
Tawhid حيد‎ Monoth­eism: belief in the Oneness of God
'Adl دل‎, Divine Justice: the belief in the Almighty's justice.
Nubuwwah نبوة‎ Prophe­thood
Imamah إمامة Succession to thd Muhammad
Mi'ad معاد The Day of Judgment and the Resurr­ection

Ten practices that Shia Muslims must perform, called the Ancill­aries of the Faith (furūʿ al-dīn).
Salat:­Prayer صلاة Salat consists of the repetition of a unit called a rakʿah (pl. rakaʿāt) consisting of prescribed actions and words
Sawm صوم‎ fasting regulated by Islamic jurisp­rud­ence. In the termin­ology of Islamic law, sawm means to abstain from eating and drinking during daylight hours
Zakāt زكاة (Tithing), similar to Sunni Islam, but only applies to cattle, silver, gold, dates, raisins, wheat, and barley, but not money.
Khums خمس an annual taxation of one-fifth (20%) of the gains that a year has been passed on without using. Khums is paid to the Imams; indirectly to poor and needy people.
Hajj حج "­pil­gri­mag­e") is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca.
Jihad جهاد Islamic term referring to the religious duty of Muslims to maintain the religion.
Amr-bi­l-M­aroof ordering for acknow­ledged virtues.
Nahi Anil Munkar forbidding from sin.
Tawalla ت تولّى expressing love towards Good.
Tabarra تبرأ‎) expressing disass­oci­ation and hatred towards Evil.