Hyperlipidemia: An increase in the concentration of blood lipids (triglycerides and cholesterol).
Invisible fats: Fat present as an integral component of plant and animal foods such as in cereals, legumes and spices.
Lactoferrin: Minor protein of milk containing iron.
Lactose intolerance: Disorder resulting from improper digestion of milk sugar called lactose, due to lack of an enzyme, lactase, in the intestinal mucosa.
Linoleic acid: Fatty acid containing 18 carbon atoms and two double bonds. The first double bond is on the sixth carbon atom from the methyl end. Therefore it is called n-6 fatty acid and is abbreviated as 18:2 n-6.
Lipids: A technical term for fats. They are important dietary constituents. The group includes triglycerides, steroids, cholesterol and other complex lipids.
Lipoproteins: Lipids are not soluble in blood; they are therefore transported as lipid and protein complexes.
Low-density lipoproteins (LDL): These transport cholesterol from the liver to tissues. High blood levels indicate that more cholesterol is being transported to tissues.
Macrocytic anaemia: Anaemia characterized by red blood cells which are larger than normal.
Macronutrients: Nutrients like carbohydrates, proteins and fats which are required in large quantities.
Metabolism: Includes catabolism and anabolism.
Microcytic anaemia: Anaemia characterized by red blood cells which are smaller than normal.
Micronutrients: Nutrients which are required in small quantities, such as vitamins and trace elements.
Monounsaturated fatty acids: Unsaturated fatty acids with one double bond.
n-6 PUFA: Linoleic acid and its longer chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are collectively called n-6 PUFA.
n-3 PUFA: Alpha-linolenic acid and its longer-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are collectively called n-3 PUFA.
Phytochemicals: General name for chemicals present in plants.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA): Unsaturated fatty acids with two or more double bonds.
Processed foods: Foods that are produced by converting raw food materials into a form suitable for eating.
Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM): A marked dietary deficiency of both energy and protein resulting in undernutrition.
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA): The amounts of dietary energy and nutrients considered sufficient for maintaining good health by the people of a country.
Refined foods: Foods which have been processed to improve their appearance, colour, taste, odour or keeping quality.
Saturated fatty acids: Fatty acids containing maximum number of hydrogen atoms that each carbon atom can carry. They do not have double bonds.
Satiety: Feeling of satisfaction after food intake.
Trans-fatty acids: Are mainly produced during hydrogenation of oils; a few also occur naturally in very small quantities.
Triglycerides (Neutral fat): The major type of dietary fat and the principal form in which energy is stored in the body. A complex of fatty acids and glycerol.
Unsaturated fatty acids: Fatty acids in which there is a shortage of hydrogen atoms. The carbon atoms then become linked by double bonds. Unsaturated fatty acids are less stable than saturated fatty acids.
Visible fats:Fats and oils that can be used directly or in cooking.
Weaning foods: Foods which are used during gradual transition of the infant from breastfeeding to a normal diet.