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Linguistic Learning Mode in Instructional Design Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by [deleted]

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.


Of the three learning modes, the linguistic mode is perhaps the one that receives the most attention from a learning perspe­ctive. This is because content is often presented lingui­sti­cally and in turn, learners are often expected to respond lingui­sti­cally. However, learning is often negative impacted because we rely on it too much by failing to account for the nonlin­guistic and affective learning modes.

1. Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback

Provide learning objectives that improves perfor­mance, which in turn, has a positive impact upon the organi­zation. In addition, provide timely feedback and assess­ments that correlates with the learning objectives and corrects non-pe­rfo­rma­nce..

2. Reinfo­rcing Effort and Providing Recogn­ition

Reinforce the learners’ efforts to show apprec­iation for their newly learned skills in order to build self-e­steem. This will help to give them the belief that effort pays off.

3. Collab­orative Learning

This is quite similar to cooper­ative learning in that the learners work together in small teams to increase their chance of deeper learning. However, collab­orative learning is a more radical departure from cooper­ative learning in that there is not necess­arily a known answer, which better reflects the needs of the organi­zation. For example, the question “how effective is elearn­ing?” provokes a wide range of possible answers, depending upon the learners' perspe­ctives. Because the collab­oration sometimes results from less purposeful and focused activi­ties, some of the learning will be uninte­ntional or serend­ipi­tous. Beside cooper­ative and collab­orative learning, you can use other group activi­ties, such as fishbowls, case studies, action learning, etc. that provide similar benefits.

4. Questions, Cues, and Advance Organizers

Questions give the learners a chance to retrieve their newly learned knowledge, which provides reinfo­rcement of their newly acquired skills and knowledge.

Cues can be thought of as a brief preview of a skill, action, or inform­ation that will later be presented in the learning process. For example, it can be as simple as saying, “I wonder what will happen if I push this button?” This simple statement can raise the learners' curiosity levels so that the importance of pushing that button remains in their memory. Marzano (1998, p.89) reported that achiev­ement can be raised by 37 percentile points when cueing is used.

An advance organizer is inform­ation that is presented prior to learning a new concept or idea that allows the learners to organize and interpret new incoming inform­ation (Mayer, 2007). Learning is more difficult when we have to learn completely new concepts that have no relati­onship to our previous knowledge. Examples are flow charts that illustrate processes, outlines or bullets to show how content is organized, and mind maps that show how concepts are related. An advanced organizer is part of scaffo­lding.

5. Non-Li­ngu­istic Repres­ent­ations

The use of visuals, such as graphs, demons­tra­tions, charts, pictures, and models help to reinforce the unders­tanding of concepts.

Models (as in people, drawings, or three-­dim­ens­ional) help to reinforce both the declar­ative and procedural network by giving them a visual cue. Marzano (1998, p.91) reported an effect size of 1.48 (which indicates that achiev­ement can be raised by 43 percentile points) when graphic repres­ent­ations are used to support linguistic learning modes.

The combined use of drawings, flowch­arts, mappings, instru­ctions, etc. can be combined to produce knowledge maps, rather than linear readings.

The Learning Enviro­nment

6. Summar­izing and Note Taking

Note taking has a positive impact since it involves the learners in the subject matter, it cause us to reflect on the subject and then record our thoughts, it helps us in interp­reting the subject matter, and it provides an additional linguistic reinfo­rce­ment. These techniques require students to generate personal linguistic repres­ent­ations of the inform­ation being presented.

Pascarella and Terenzini (1991, p.98) reported that the greater the learner's involv­ement or engagement (which includes note-t­aking) in the learning process, the greater the knowledge acquis­ition.

7. Providing Practice and Experience

Activities (manip­ula­tives — hands-on learning) engage learners. While we can learn the basics of such activities as football, chess, PowerP­oint, or leading by observing or hearing about it, we do not really understand it until we actually do it.

Pascarella & Terenzini (1991, p.98) reported that the greater the learner's involv­ement or engagement is in the learning process, the greater the knowledge acquis­ition.

Marzano 1998, p.91) reported an effect size of 0.89 (which indicates that achiev­ement can be raised by 31 percentile points) when manipu­latives (engaging the learners) are used. In addition, he reported (p.93) an effect size of 1.14 (which indicates that achiev­ement can be raised by 37 percentile points) when experi­mental learning is used and an effect size of .54 (a percentile gain of 21 points) by using problem solving processes.

Providing experience helps to ensure the learners can use their newly acquired skills and knowledge to improve their perfor­mance on the job. Of all of the strategies discussed here, this is the only one that actually shows that the learning processes actually pays off with real perfor­mance, while the other ones help you to create better learning processes.

8. Identi­fying Simila­rities and Differ­ences

This helps the learners to gain insight, draw infere­nces, make genera­liz­ations, and develop schemas. There are four process for accomp­lishing this:

Comparing and Contra­sting - Comparing items, such as concepts, ideas, things, etc. in order to identify important charac­ter­istics that are similar. Contra­sting concepts, ideas, things, etc. in order to identify important charac­ter­istics that are different.

Classi­fying items, such as concepts, ideas, things, etc. into groups and labeling them.

Creating Metaphors in order to understand and define how two items are similar or related in an abstract way.

Creating Analogies to think about the relati­onship between two items and extend that relati­onship to another set of items. This is the most complex format as the learners must think about “relat­ion­ships between relati­ons­hips.”

An activity similar to Comparing and Contra­sting is matching exampl­e/n­on-­example pairs.

When presenting inform­ation to the learners it is helpful to use different approa­ches.

9. Generating and Testing Hypothesis

Encour­aging prediction and explan­ation around these predic­tions forces learners to think about the content in terms of outcomes.