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Learning with Artifacts Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by [deleted]

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.


Knowledge often comes to us via transc­ribed content or artifacts, which is derived from other's knowledge. These are facts, concepts, processes, proced­ures, and principles (Clark & Chopeta, 2004). Thus, artifacts are used in the learning process for creating knowledge, while in turn, knowledge creates new artifacts.

Content (Artifacts of Knowledge)

There are five primary types of content (artifacts of knowle­dge): facts, concepts, processes, proced­ures, and principles (Clark, Mayer, 2007):
Facts Specific and unique data or instance.
Conc­epts A class of items, words, or ideas that are known by a common name, includes multiple specific examples, shares common features. There are two types of concepts: concrete and abstract.
Proc­esses A flow of events or activities that describe how things work rather than how to do things. There are normally two types: business processes that describe work flows and technical processes that describe how things work in equipment or nature. They can be thought of as the big picture, of how something works.
Proc­edu­res A series of step-b­y-step actions and decisions that result in the achiev­ement of a task. There are two types of actions: linear and branched.
Prin­cip­les Guidel­ines, rules, and parameters that govern. It includes not only what should be done, but also what should not be done. Principles allow one to make predic­tions and draw implic­ations. Given an effect, one can infer the cause of a phenomena. Principles are the basic building blocks of causal models or theore­tical models (theor­ies).

Knowledge Creation Spirial Overview

The artifacts (content) are used in the knowledge creation process to create two types of knowledge: decl­arative and proced­ural, as shown in the global view.

The Knowledge Creation (Detailed)

Declar­ative Knowledge

Declar­ative models refers to repres­ent­ations of objects and events and how these knowledge and events are related to other objects and events. They focus on the why rather than the how. It allows us to think and talk about the world. Declar­ative models include propos­itions and schemata.

Procedural Knowledge

Procedural models focus on tasks that must be performed to reach a particular objective or goal. It is charac­terized as knowing how. Procedural knowledge is often difficult to verbalize and articulate (tacit knowledge) than declar­ative knowledge.

Procedural knowledge emphasizes hierar­chical or inform­ation processing approaches based upon produc­tions. A combin­ation of produc­tions create production systems.