Show Menu

Elaboration Likelihood Model Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by [deleted]

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.


Elabor­ation Likelihood Model is developed by Richard E. Petty and John T. Cacioppo in 1980s. Persuasion is very much associated with our daily life. Persuasion occurs when readers, listeners or viewers learns a message from what they read, listen or watch. We remember the message as ideas and we will be persuaded by it. That is how we remember them. If we did not learn something, it is not possible to remember it and we will not be persuaded by it. However learning may not be always combined with persua­sion. For example there might be some advert­ise­ments that we hate, we don’t want to learn or remember the message from the advert­isement and we are not being persuaded by it. The Elabor­ation Likelihood Model (ELM) explains how persuasion message works in changing the attitude of reader or viewer. It is very much important for corpor­ations and advert­isement agencies, in designing their market strategies and unders­tanding the attitudes of peoples.


Persuasion is referred as the action by which, convincing or causing someone to do something through reasoning or argument. The Elabor­ation Likelihood model proposes that each and every message is undergoing the process of persuasion in two different ways. They are called Central route and peripheral route. Both of them are effective persuasion techni­que­s,but each of them has its own guiding techniques to make them more operative.

Central Route

The process of persuasion through Central route is straight to the point and complete. Central Route requires:
Thoughtful consid­eration of arguments which contains in the message.
Involv­ement from the part of reader or viewer. The receiver of the message carefully analyze the message and think of it in every possible angle.
Receiver should care about the message and subject matter.
A person distracted or having some problem with unders­tanding the message may not be able to do the central proces­sing. he or she will ignore it.
If the receiver is not directly affected by the message

Elabor­ation Model

Peripheral Route

The peripheral route is weak and the involv­ement of the receiver will be low. The message sent through peripheral route is not analyzed cognit­ively. Here the receiver of the message is not sure whether to agree with the message or to disagree. The person may not be able to:
Elaborate the message extens­ively, so in the end he will be persuaded by the factors which are nothing to do with the message. And this is where packing, marketing, advert­ising and PR does their job. Sometimes people may not be in a position to think about the message carefully so he or she will look around for the next best option to be persuaded.