Introduction to Five-stage Model
In the novice stage, a person follows rules as given, without context, with no sense of responsibility beyond following the rules exactly. Competence develops when the individual develops organizing principles to quickly access the particular rules that are relevant to the specific task at hand; hence, competence is characterized by active decision making in choosing a course of action. Proficiency is shown by individuals who develop intuition to guide their decisions and devise their own rules to formulate plans. The progression is thus from rigid adherence to rules to an intuitive mode of reasoning based on tacit knowledge.
The Dreyfus model of skill acquisition is how students acquire skills through formal instruction & practicing. The original model proposed 5 stages: novice, competence, proficiency, expertise & mastery.
"rigid adherence to taught rules or plans"
no exercise of "discretionary judgment"
2. Advanced beginner
limited "situational perception"
all aspects of work treated separately with equal importance
"coping with crowdedness" (multiple activities, accumulation of information)
some perception of actions in relation to goals
holistic view of situation
prioritizes importance of aspects
"perceives deviations from the normal pattern"
employs maxims for guidance, with meanings that adapt to the situation at hand
transcends reliance on rules, guidelines, and maxims
"intuitive grasp of situations based on deep, tacit understanding"
has "vision of what is possible"
uses "analytical approaches" in new situations or in case of problems
Original Dreyfus model
non-situational recollection, decomposed recognition, analytical decision, monitoring awareness
situational recollection, decomposed recognition, analytical decision, monitoring awareness
situational recollection, holistic recognition, analytical decision, monitoring awareness
situational recollection, holistic recognition, intuitive decision, monitoring awareness
situational recollection, holistic recognition, intuitive decision, absorbed awareness
Instead the original Dreyfus model is based on four binary qualities:
1. Recollection (non-situational or situational)
2. Recognition (decomposed or holistic)
3. Decision (analytical or intuitive)
4. Awareness (monitoring or absorbed)