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Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by [deleted]

Stages of student learning

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.

Introd­uction to Five-stage Model

In the novice stage, a person follows rules as given, without context, with no sense of respon­sib­ility beyond following the rules exactly. Competence develops when the individual develops organizing principles to quickly access the particular rules that are relevant to the specific task at hand; hence, competence is charac­terized by active decision making in choosing a course of action. Profic­iency is shown by indivi­duals who develop intuition to guide their decisions and devise their own rules to formulate plans. The progre­ssion is thus from rigid adherence to rules to an intuitive mode of reasoning based on tacit knowledge.
The Dreyfus model of skill acquis­ition is how students acquire skills through formal instru­ction & practi­cing. The original model proposed 5 stages: novice, compet­ence, profic­iency, expertise & mastery.

New Classi­fic­ations

1. Novice
"rigid adherence to taught rules or plans"
no exercise of "­dis­cre­tionary judgme­nt"

2. Advanced beginner
limited "­sit­uat­ional percep­tio­n"
all aspects of work treated separately with equal importance

3. Compet­ent
"coping with crowde­dne­ss" (multiple activi­ties, accumu­lation of inform­ation)
some perception of actions in relation to goals
deliberate planning
formulates routines

4. Profic­ient
holistic view of situation
prioritizes importance of aspects
"perceives deviations from the normal patter­n"
employs maxims for guidance, with meanings that adapt to the situation at hand

5. Expert
transcends reliance on rules, guidel­ines, and maxims
"intuitive grasp of situations based on deep, tacit unders­tan­din­g"
has "­vision of what is possib­le"
uses "­ana­lytical approa­che­s" in new situations or in case of problems


Original Dreyfus model

1. Novice
non-situational recoll­ection, decomposed recogn­ition, analytical decision, monitoring awareness

2. Compet­ence
situational recoll­ection, decomposed recogn­ition, analytical decision, monitoring awareness

3. Profic­iency
situational recoll­ection, holistic recogn­ition, analytical decision, monitoring awareness

4. Expert­ise
situational recoll­ection, holistic recogn­ition, intuitive decision, monitoring awareness

5. Mastery
situational recoll­ection, holistic recogn­ition, intuitive decision, absorbed awareness
Instead the original Dreyfus model is based on four binary qualities:
1. Recoll­ection (non-s­itu­ational or situat­ion­al)
2. Recogn­ition (decom­posed or holist­ic)
3. Decision (analy­tical or intuit­ive)
4. Awareness (monit­oring or absorb­ed)

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