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Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by [deleted]

Stages of student learning

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.

Introd­uction to Five-stage Model

In the novice stage, a person follows rules as given, without context, with no sense of respon­sib­ility beyond following the rules exactly. Competence develops when the individual develops organizing principles to quickly access the particular rules that are relevant to the specific task at hand; hence, competence is charac­terized by active decision making in choosing a course of action. Profic­iency is shown by indivi­duals who develop intuition to guide their decisions and devise their own rules to formulate plans. The progre­ssion is thus from rigid adherence to rules to an intuitive mode of reasoning based on tacit knowledge.
The Dreyfus model of skill acquis­ition is how students acquire skills through formal instru­ction & practi­cing. The original model proposed 5 stages: novice, compet­ence, profic­iency, expertise & mastery.

New Classi­fic­ations

1. Novice
"­rigid adherence to taught rules or plans"
no exercise of "­dis­cre­tionary judgme­nt"

2. Advanced beginner
limited "­sit­uat­ional percep­tio­n"
all aspects of work treated separately with equal importance

3. Competent
"­coping with crowde­dne­ss" (multiple activi­ties, accumu­lation of inform­ation)
some perception of actions in relation to goals
deliberate planning
formulates routines

4. Proficient
holistic view of situation
priori­tizes importance of aspects
"­per­ceives deviations from the normal patter­n"
employs maxims for guidance, with meanings that adapt to the situation at hand

5. Expert
transcends reliance on rules, guidel­ines, and maxims
"­int­uitive grasp of situations based on deep, tacit unders­tan­din­g"
has "­vision of what is possib­le"
uses "­ana­lytical approa­che­s" in new situations or in case of problems


Original Dreyfus model

1. Novice
non-si­tua­tional recoll­ection, decomposed recogn­ition, analytical decision, monitoring awareness

2. Competence
situat­ional recoll­ection, decomposed recogn­ition, analytical decision, monitoring awareness

3. Profic­iency
situat­ional recoll­ection, holistic recogn­ition, analytical decision, monitoring awareness

4. Expertise
situat­ional recoll­ection, holistic recogn­ition, intuitive decision, monitoring awareness

5. Mastery
situat­ional recoll­ection, holistic recogn­ition, intuitive decision, absorbed awareness
Instead the original Dreyfus model is based on four binary qualities:
1. Recoll­ection (non-s­itu­ational or situat­ional)
2. Recogn­ition (decom­posed or holistic)
3. Decision (analy­tical or intuitive)
4. Awareness (monit­oring or absorbed)