Show Menu

How to structure an argument Cheat Sheet by [deleted]

Struct­uring an argument

Struct­uring a classical argument actually began in the 5th century BC. Greek philos­ophers actually taught Greek farmers how to properly present their arguments in court. To this day, arguments are saved by
help with statics homework service and still framed using the five components used by farmers all those centuries ago.

The Introd­uction – this serves as the opport­unity for the writer to build rapport with reader­s/a­udience members. It also serves as a way to establish the central theme or thesis of the argument about to be presented.

Narration – the narration aspect of the argument provides salient inform­ation such as background inform­ation, parties involved, circum­sta­nces, and what is at stake.

Confir­mation – the confir­mation lays out a logical order of strongest evidence to weakest.

Refutation and Concession – this section drills down into opposing viewpoints and possible objections to the writer’s argument. These views are allowed without weakening the claim set forth by the thesis.


Summation – the summation is the strong close where the writer reinforces his or her position and why their argument is the best solution.

Each of the five components represents an entire section of the paper with varying lengths. Many times the introd­uction and narration are combined into one section, with the confir­mation and concession sections being combined into several paragr­aphs.

Below we take a look at some strategies for crafting an effective argument.

Start with an outline using the five components as the basis. An outline is helpful because it allows you to properly organize and structure each element. Effective arguments have proper flow and logical sequences. An outline will help you to structure your argument in this fashion. It ensures that each sentence counts and is substa­ntiated with persua­sive, logical thinking and pertinent data.

Prepare a rough draft. A rough draft is exactly that – rough. At this point you do not need to be overly concerned with perfect grammar or spelling. The main point of the rough draft is to establish proper flow and tone. A great way to evaluate your rough draft is to read it aloud for tone and flow. These two steps are great for all essays, including formal argume­ntation papers.

Five components

Let’s drill down into more specific strategies for each of the five compon­ents:

The introd­uction should capture the reader’s attention, establish your perception as a writer, and cement your point of view regarding the argument.

The narration and argume­ntation sections establish your argument by explaining relevant background inform­ation, similar arguments, data and anything else that affects the argument in your favor. For example, if your argument is on mandating high school basketball players to stay in college for three years before turning profes­sional, you would want to give statistics on the failures of those players who have not succeeded, the current rule and why it is flawed, and any data from legitimate studies supporting your claims.

The refutation and concession sections are often difficult for many students because they have to explain why an argument will not work. This is often the strongest section that works in your favor if you craft it right. It shows you have thought of possible objections and arguments that will come against you.

The conclusion should not just restate the thesis. It should remind the readers of what is at stake and that your argument is the best soluti­on/­answer.


No comments yet. Add yours below!

Add a Comment

Your Comment

Please enter your name.

    Please enter your email address

      Please enter your Comment.

          Related Cheat Sheets

          NaNoWriMo Cheat Sheet
          Writing Cheat Sheet Cheat Sheet
          Writing a Book Cheat Sheet